The mushrooms collected, that is, taken from the natural nutrient medium, do not lie for a long time, they spoil. The process of rotting of mushrooms begins, as a result of which there is the formation of compounds harmful to human health. A few hours after harvest, especially in summer in warm or rainy weather, the mushrooms may become unusable..
Sorting and cleaning mushrooms from forest debris. Flushing and removing bitterness from mushrooms. Cleaning mushrooms from radionuclides.
The only way to save mushrooms is to cook some sort of libido or to process them quickly. If this is not possible, the mushrooms should be put in a sieve, colander or enameled pan (do not cover with a lid) and put in a cold place, but not more than a day or two. In any case, no matter what the collection is intended for, mushrooms should not be dumped in one place at random. We need to learn the following: in addition to differences in categories, mushrooms are also edible and conditionally edible.
Edible and conditionally edible mushrooms.
Edible mushrooms are those in which the hat and leg do not contain bitterness, harmful substances or an unpleasant odor. They can be cooked, fried and served immediately after collection, processing and appropriate preparation..
Edible mushrooms include the following species:
Porcini, mushrooms, oak trees, chestnut mushrooms, oily, boletus, mushrooms, mushrooms, honey mushrooms (summer, meadow, autumn, winter), yellow chanterelles, brown mushrooms, Polish mushrooms, russula (brown, yellow, green, greenish, golden red, like, violet, food, kindred, gray, blue-yellow, blue, umber, whole), oyster mushrooms, brown hygrophors, parasol mushrooms, govorushki, raincoats, yellow blackberries, greenfinch, goats, ringed caps, deer reindeer, hangings, floats gray, yellow horned, rowing (purple and gray), stanza ii blue-green, yellow Polypore sulfur, tinder sheep, pholiota (golden and fleecy) chesnochniki etc..
, pour boiling water and keep under oppression for 3-5 minutes. Russula and saffron mushrooms can then be fearlessly cleaned and washed, they will gain elasticity and firmness, which they will retain even when salted or pickled.
Removing bitterness from mushrooms.
It is possible to reduce or even eliminate the bitter taste in some mushrooms, mainly conditionally edible, by heat treatment. Moreover, the broth must then be drained, since it is quite bitter and poisonous. Enameled cookware is necessary for the heat treatment of mushrooms. In no case should you use copper, cast-iron, tin pots and the like containers, since their metal reacts with mushrooms. They fade (for example, light mushrooms, having visited a cast iron, become dark), lose vitamins and can even become poisonous.
Until recently, it was believed that aluminum dishes were suitable for boiling mushrooms and, in general, for cooking various dishes. Swedish scientists, as a result of recent experiments, have a different opinion on this matter. They found that with food contained in such dishes, microdoses of aluminum also enter the body. Through blood, they then penetrate the brain. If a person constantly uses aluminum pans for 10-15 years, he develops a non-inflammatory disease of the brain, leading to dullness, which cannot be treated. It is better to get rid of such dishes if someone has it. The most famous are two types of heat treatment.
In the first case, bring the water to a boil, salting it (0.5 tablespoon per 1 liter of water). Mushrooms are lowered into the pan and kept there for 5 to 15 minutes. Then transferred to a container of cold water to cool faster. In the second, the mushrooms are dipped in cold salted water and brought to a boil. Then the dishes are immediately removed from the fire. Mushrooms are there until they cool. Only after that they are thrown back into a sieve or colander. You can get rid of bitterness in another way. Treated mushrooms are soaked for 15-20 minutes, and sometimes from 2 to 6 hours in cold water salted or acidified with vinegar. After such a bath, it is advisable to douse them with boiling water, or even better, boil them.
Cleaning mushrooms from radionuclides.
Mushrooms collected in the forests of a number of areas adjacent to the Chernobyl zone must be subjected to special treatment. These mushrooms may contain radioactive poison, mainly cesium-137, which fell to the ground after the Chernobyl tragedy and is capable of exhaling its invisible poison for a long time. Methods for cleaning at home some foods, including mushrooms, from radionuclides, developed by employees of the A.N. Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology Severtsev, repeatedly tested, they are simple, harmless and quite effective.
It was found that radioactive elements are washed out with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (extra or iodized). If a little acetic essence or ascorbic acid is added to the solution, then the proteins from the product to be purified are not lost, and the cesium active and mobile element quickly passes into the liquid. Strontium also forms water-insoluble compounds with acids that precipitate. It is only necessary from time to time to prepare a fresh solution and replace it with the previous one..
Mushrooms, as usual, are cleaned of forest debris, washed in cold water, cut into pieces and placed in an enameled pan. After that, it is filled with brine (30 grams of salt per 1 liter of water, the ratio of the mass of mushrooms to the volume of liquid is 1: 1). The pan is set on fire, the contents are brought to a boil and boiled for 10 minutes. Then the solution is drained. The mushrooms are washed with cold water, use a new solution and boil for 20 minutes. The liquid is again removed and a fresh solution is poured, again kept on fire for 20 minutes. Total boiling time 50 minutes.
The proposed method for processing mushrooms, according to the institute, reduces the concentration of radionuclides in them by two or even three orders of magnitude with a high degree of reliability. In the future, mushrooms can be fried, salted or pickled. In the same way, dried mushrooms are also cleared of radionuclides. So, although this is a troublesome task, the mushrooms are processed. Thus, you have protected yourself from possible poisoning and unpleasant taste sensations. Now mushrooms can be safely eaten or harvested in various ways for the future.
Based on materials from the book Handbook mushroom picker.