Sound and electric means of signaling and giving distress signals, use of kites and flag-signals for giving distress signals.

There are special pyrotechnic firecrackers for sounding distress alerts that fire 10 seconds after they are activated. The signal of such firecrackers can be heard at a distance of up to 6 8 km. Sound aids are supplied with some signal rockets. This is usually a whistle or howl that lasts all the time while the light is on.. 

Sound and electrical distress alerts and alarms, use of kites and distress flags for distress alerts.

The sound of a whistle is heard at least twice as far as a scream. And even three times if special signal whistles are used. Rhythmically sounding shots can attract the attention of rescuers. An audible distress signal is considered to be individual loud noises made at intervals of 1 minute. Or groups of six separate sounds, separated by a pause. Or a continuous beep, a whistle, the howling of a fog horn.

and a sealed case, with a powerful, enlightened reflector, giving the most dense, narrowly directed beam (point) in the center of the light circle.

Reflectors, scattering light, repeatedly reduce the limit of its detection. The density and location of the point in the light circle largely depends on the position of the spiral in the light bulb, so it is better to sort out a few (or even a few dozen), eliminating the most successful ones. Convenient, from the point of view of alarm, various automotive flashing flashlights. They consume battery power more economically and attract attention more. The batteries in the signal flashlight should be used the most reliable and capacitive, even if they will be more expensive than ordinary.

But best of all, when setting off on a trip, take along mechanical flashlight bugs for which batteries are not required. And be sure to have some spare bulbs. Since in such hand-held, giving a torn voltage, flashlights, bulbs can burn out quite often. Know the Morse code, using a flashlight, opening and closing the reflector, you can transmit a distress signal and other messages. SOS signal: three dots short pause three dashes short pause three dots (• • • • • •)

An electric torch at the disposal of the victims is very important to protect from rain and exposure to freezing temperatures. To do this, especially in severe frost, keep it and carry it only under clothes, so that the batteries do not cool and do not sit down. But so that it can be quickly pulled out if necessary. The easiest way to shelter a flashlight from precipitation is to put it in a balloon, sorry, a condom, or a whole (check by blowing) plastic bag. The dead batteries can be tried to bring to life by tapping stones on the sides or by frying on fire. In some cases (but by no means always), these methods briefly return the missing voltage to the dead batteries..

You can use flash units mounted in many modern cameras to give a distress signal. Flash units have a strong, but very short glow, which can be mistaken for a random flare. Hence it is very important that the signal emitted by the flash is periodically repeated. It must be given on the most elevated and exposed area. It is very good if the reflecting background is light. In ordinary cameras, one battery charge lasts for 30 35 flashes.

Distress Alerts in Marine and Aviation Emergency Kits.

In marine and aviation individual and collective rescue equipment, various water-filling batteries are used, which operate when their hull is filled with water. They supply a voltage of 3 6 V light bulbs placed in waterproof transparent caps mounted on life jackets and on awnings of life rafts and boats. Water filling batteries are disposable and are discarded after 20 to 40 hours.

The time to reach the rated voltage of the Mayachok-1 battery, which is used to power the signal light in life jackets, is: in salt water at near-zero temperatures no more than 25 minutes, at 15 20 degrees 3 minutes, at 20 and more than 1 minute. In fresh at 3 5 degrees no more than 30 minutes, at 15 20 no more than 15 minutes, at 20 30 5 minutes. In the more powerful Mayachok-2 battery, designed to provide life rafts and boats with light, the time to reach the rated voltage is somewhat longer. But this constructive time, so to speak, with a margin, in practice, the batteries begin to work, usually faster.

Included with lifebuoys are sometimes used light-emitting buoys. The length of such a buoy is 850 mm, diameter 250 mm, weight 13 kg. Signal light is provided by two bulbs located in the upper part of the float, powered by a block of water-filling batteries. Duration of continuous illumination of bulbs 2 hours. Range of visibility is about 2 km. In the daytime, when the light signal is useless, a smoke alarm is triggered, continuously acting for 15 minutes.

Kites and Flags as Distress Alerts.

I’ll name another children’s entertainment designed to serve the salvation of people, a kite. The frame, made of several thin boards, must be covered with light paper, cloth or polyethylene, and a noticeable kite soars from afar from the forest. If you tie strips of variegated fabric or foil to the tail of a snake, it will become more noticeable. You can also advise near the camp, on the tops of trees standing separately or towering above the forest, to hang signal flags, sewn from variegated pieces of fabric, from open tents, clothes. Ideal flagpoles for such flag flags can serve as points of the state geodetic network.

It is placed at a line of sight (2 to 20 km) from each other throughout the country. These tetrahedral wooden or metal towers are up to 40 meters high, and the signal attached to them will be visible from afar. In addition, it will give pilots the perfect reference to the terrain. Large orange or colorful cloths stretched with the help of long ropes over a lake or river parallel to the surface of the water are clearly distinguishable from above. One side of the cloth is attached to bushes and trees growing on the shore, the other to stakes driven into the bottom of the reservoir. Over narrow water bodies, the fabric stretches from one shore to the other..

Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.
Ilyin A.

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