The action of psycho-traumatic factors during an extreme situation causes a state of overstrain stress in the human body. Stress is an integral part of life, only distress is dangerous when the body does not have time to recover. The most important problem of extreme conditions is the proper adaptation.
Stages of psychological adaptation in emergency and extreme situations.
Psychologists’ research revealed a complex of three basic reactions of the body in the process of adaptation to new conditions, calling them the common adaptation syndrome. This is the phase of the anxiety state, the phase of resistance, the phase of exhaustion. At the stage of initial mental stress in the first hours and minutes of an accident or catastrophe and falling into an extreme situation, mental tension intensifies, expressed in painful experiences, in the subjective slowdown of the passage of time, in sleep disturbances. It is caused by playing in a person’s imagination of alleged situations that may arise in his position.
factors, duration of stay in an extreme situation and individual personality traits. Most often, the transition to the usual rhythm of work and life takes several days, but sometimes this process requires a longer time: several months and even years!
From the foregoing, it follows that a person in an extreme situation has a certain time limit, which varies greatly depending not only on external factors of influence, but also on the psychophysical state of a person, as well as on certain life-support skills in extreme conditions. But there are, however, those critical figures and moments that the body is not allowed to cross. This applies to a person’s stay in very chilled water below 6 degrees Celsius, in frost in a strong wind.
Even at 0 degrees Celsius, but wind above 5 m / s, frostbite and dangerous overcooling of the body occur. With prolonged overheating of the body and especially an uncovered head, with a lack or absence of water. From the loss of only 15% of moisture by weight, death occurs.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.