Starvation as a risk factor in natural disasters and in conditions of autonomous existence.

Medical literature defines hunger as “the totality of sensations expressing the physiological need of the body for food”. Oh, and “sensations”! Oh, and “expresses”! Tom, more precisely, my poor stomach is a witness. 

Starvation as a risk factor in natural disasters and in the context of autonomous existence.

More than once I had to, sometimes for purely scientific purposes, sometimes forcedly, to starve for ten days in a row. And not at home, mind you, but on a liferaft or on a bicycle, dragged on its own hump along sand dunes. This factor is worth a lot. I have a special relationship with him. Accordingly, starvation is “the state of the body in the absence or insufficiency of nutrients”.

Types of Fasting.

Conditionally distinguish several types of starvation. Absolute – when there is neither food nor water. Complete – when a person is deprived of all food, but not limited in water consumption. Incomplete – when food is consumed in limited quantities, insufficient to restore energy consumption. Partial – when, with sufficient quantitative nutrition, a person loses one or more substances with food – vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, etc..

With complete starvation, the body is forced to switch to internal self-sufficiency, that is, if everything is called by its proper name, it begins to eat itself. Initially, fat reserves are “eaten”, then muscle protein, muscle glycogen, and liver glycogen. At the same time, the metabolic rate decreases, energy costs are reduced. How much can a person have enough internal energy NS? Let’s try to count. We formulate the conditions of the problem.

How much can a person have enough internal energy reserve.

A middle-aged man stepped out from point A to point B, but did not reach point B, as he was in an emergency situation resulting in a loss of food. Question: how long the period of safe fasting can last, if it is known that a man’s weight is 70 kg, weather conditions are favorable – “room” temperature, lack of wind and precipitation, water consumption is unlimited?
weights are reduced.

In the future, hunger subsides. The appetite disappears, sometimes a person even experiences some vigor. The tongue is often covered with a whitish coating, when inhaling in the mouth, a faint smell of acetone can be felt. Salivation does not increase even with food. Bad sleep, prolonged headaches, and increased irritability may be observed. With prolonged starvation, a person falls into apathy, lethargy, drowsiness. Yet hunger, as the cause of death, is extremely rare in emergency situations..

This is not because people in distress do not starve. No, hunger in these cases is not uncommon. He was, is, and always will be the eternal companion of an emergency. Just the victims rarely die of starvation. Famine is terrible because it enhances the damaging effect of other adverse factors. He undermines the strength of a person from within, after which a host of other ailments, no less dangerous than hunger, fall upon him, which complete the work. A hungry man freezes several times faster than a well-fed one. He often gets sick and harder to tolerate the course of the disease. With prolonged starvation, reactions slow down, mental activity weakens. Performance drops sharply.

Emergency behavior in the absence of food.

Therefore, in the absence of food stocks, when it is impossible to provide them through hunting, fishing, collecting wild edible plants, passive survival tactics should be followed, that is, help should be expected in the immediate vicinity of the accident site. In order to save energy, we must try not to leave our shelter without extreme need, to lie more, sleep, any active activity — work inside the camp, transition, and the like — to minimize, do only the most necessary work.

Duty – and duties of the duty officer include logging, maintaining fire, shelter repair, monitoring the area, water production – should be carried out alternately, dividing day and night into short, one-two hours shifts. Only wounded, sick and young children may be exempted from duty on duty. All other members of the emergency group must be involved in watch keeping without fail..

With a large number of people, you can appoint two attendants at a time. Such an order is necessary primarily to prevent outbreaks of apathy, despondency, pessimistic moods that may arise as a result of a long passive stay in the shelter. Of course, if there is even a small opportunity to provide food on the spot, all possible efforts should be made.

Based on materials from the School of Survival in Natural Conditions.
Andrey Ilyin.

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