Stationary live traps play the role of permanent feeding stations and sites, they attach animals to certain places, and when used economically, they allow for group and selective capture of animals, deer, sables, nutria, and game birds.
Stationary live traps and hunting pits, purpose, device, principle of operation, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
Many stationary live traps are complex structures that require quite a lot of money and labor costs. Nevertheless, with an abundance of game, they fully pay for themselves, since they can be used for several years.
Catching pits for catching wolves and stray dogs, purpose, device, operating principle, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
In the recent past, deer and some other large animals were caught with hunting pits, which were dug up and masked on the torus paths of animals. Currently, such a method of catching hunting animals is prohibited everywhere and is punishable by criminal law as generally dangerous and causing damage to the hunting economy. In exceptional cases, it is permitted to set up open, unmasked pits with an ice rink designed to catch wolves and stray dogs.
To do this, use a steep slope of the yar at an angle of 50-60 degrees or the slope of the hill of the floodplain terrace with a height of 5 meters or more. At the base of such a hillock, they dig a hole 1 meter wide, 1.5-2 long and 2 meters deep and more. Above its outer and side walls, peaks are made from a slab of a meter wide, directed obliquely towards the slope, which protect the pit from snow drift and prevent the wolf from jumping out of it.
On the slope, the descent to the pit is cleared and leveled, and during established frosts an ice rink is frozen on it. At the top, above the ice rink, carrion is tied to the driven stakes – a sheep, a calf, and other animals directed by the ventral side to the pit (Scheme a). Then the predator, getting to the bait, does not stay on a sloping surface and falls into the pit. The cost of making such a pit is justified only in areas with a very high number of wolves and stray dogs.
Ground pits, purpose, device, principle of operation, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
In hunting farms, the conventionally called “ground pits” are most often used – all kinds of cages and boxes with falling lids. The simplest ground pit – a log house, designed to catch wolves, jackals and stray dogs, make it in the form of a truncated pyramid or cone with a base of 4 meters, a height of 2 meters and with a hole at the top of 1 meter.
The blockhouse is hammered together from the crooks, dies or poles (Scheme b), placing live bait or carrion in it. A wolf or a jackal, having visited such a trap, climbs to its top and, jumping inside, cannot get out. Such a log house can be made smaller on foxes and a hole can be dug up to a depth of 1-1.5 meters. The catchability of such traps is low..
Stationary live-trap-feeders, purpose, device, principle of operation, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
To increase the productivity of cages, stationary live-trap-feeders are arranged. This type of airplanes was used in the fox fishery and in nutria farms with semi-free breeding of animals. The simplest trap-feeder for arctic foxes was made by I. S. Kozhevin, its ground part consists of a trapping box without a bottom measuring 3×3 meters and a height of up to 1 meter.
Its roof is gable, gently sloping, with a flat meter top at the top, on which are mounted failing covers of two wings 1.5 meters long and up to 0.5 meters wide. These flaps 1/3 hinge freely rotate on the longitudinal axes and with wide sides directed towards each other. So that they occupy a horizontal position, on the narrow sides of the wings, counterweights are attached – along a bar with stops.
The Arctic fox, having climbed onto the crate and stepping in the middle of the sash, falls down, and the sashes return to the horizontal position. Inside the box, on both sides of the falling lid, wooden fishing pipes are mounted 3 meters long, 25-30 cm wide and high. Inside each pipe, 0.5 meters away from the edges, instead of the floor, two meter boards swinging on axles with counterweights are mounted instead of the floor.
This falling floor is also designed so that the arctic fox, climbing into the middle of the pipe, would also fall into the box. The lower underground part of the trap is a square pit, slightly smaller than a box and up to 2 meters deep. They put a bait in the pit and cover the pit with a box. Before fishing, the falling floors and the lid of the box are removed, and instead of them wooden gangways are placed, along which Arctic foxes can go down into the pit and go outside.
This accustoms them to visit the live-feeding trough. When the fox fishery begins, the gangways are removed, and the falling floors and the lid are put in place. Arctic foxes caught in a trap are pulled out with a stick with a loop through the upper falling cover.
Stationary live trap-feeders for arctic foxes, purpose, device, operating principle, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
The second more complex type of trap-feeder for arctic foxes is made in the form of a small barn with an attic, on which top-dressing is laid out (scheme c). The entrance to the attic is equipped by a gangway and through a pipe with a falling floor placed above the hole in the ceiling of the barn. A month or two before the start of fishing, the floor in the pipe is jammed, and in the attic they are laid out abundant top dressing and they teach the Arctic foxes to regularly visit the trap.
A fishing wooden pipe with a falling floor is knocked down from boards 2.5 meters long, 30 cm wide and high. The floor at the pipe is stuffed only at the edges by 0.5 meters, and the one and a half meter opening in the middle of the pipe is blocked with two 75-centimeter floorboards swinging freely on the transverse axes. The ends of these floorboards are adjusted to each other with the floor of both ends of the pipe so that the gap between them is minimal and at the same time does not interfere with the failed floorboards to rotate freely (Figure e).
The axes are arranged not in the middle of the failing floorboards, but having shifted them to the outer sides of the pipe by 10 cm from the middle. Thus, for moving floorboards, one side will be 28 cm long and the other directed towards the middle 47 cm. In the free state, the floorboards with long sides they sag down to return them to a horizontal position, they are chocked down to a short half or attached to some load (counterweight), which returns both floorboards to a horizontal position, pressing them to the planks packed on the side walls (limiter m) with a force of 0.5 kg.
To fix both failing floorboards, a stop guard is made, which should hold one floorboard until the beast steps on the second. In the Far North, such a guard was made of a dry pine block 30–40 cm long and 5 cm thick. A guard was cut out at the thick butt end – an obliquely cut ledge of 1–2 cm, depending on the accuracy of the fit of the failed floorboards.
A gatehouse was cut out next to the guard – a ledge with an oblique cut and a flat horizontal platform at the top. The same size as the guard. The rest of the block was trimmed to the end to a thickness of 3-4 mm (Scheme d). The very end of the plank was pinned in the middle of the side wall of the pipe so that the guard was exactly under the end cut of the floorboard directed to the stern, and the gatehouse under the end cut of the second floorboard directed to the entrance to the pipe.
For the plank, it is necessary to provide a cutout in the pipe wall so that it can bend 1-2 cm to the side and return to its original position, acting as a spring. Purpose of the gatehouse to keep one floorboard in a horizontal position until the beast steps on the second, which, lowering, presses on the oblique section of the guard and moves the entire plank to the side.
At the same time, the gatehouse also comes out from under the first floorboard, and then they, together with the beast, fall down. And then, under the action of counterweights, they return to their original horizontal position. Moreover, the left half will lean on the gatehouse, and the right one will freeze above the slanting gate. With the advent of the second beast, everything will happen again, and he also falls into the trap.
Instead of a wooden plank with a guard and a gatehouse carved on it, it is easier to make an alarm device from an iron plate measuring 70×70 mm and a thickness of 1-1.5 mm. A blank is cut out of it (diagram g) and bends are made at right angles. The result is a guard on the left, and a gatehouse on the right. This plate is riveted to a steel spring strip, which plays the same role as a thin board near a wooden guard.
You can fix this plate in a freely suspended form on two nails and a spring-loaded elastic multi-coil cylindrical spring inserted into the hole drilled by a drill in the side wall of the pipe. A plate is cut and suspended in the middle of the pipe, providing for it a cutout in the board for deflection when the floorboards are returned and horizontal position.
Stationary live traps with a falling cover for group catching nutria, device, principle of operation, manufacturing, installation and adjustment.
Stationary live traps with a falling cover for group catching nutria are a wooden box with sides 85×45 cm and a height of 70 cm. A wire mesh is mounted on the bottom of the box, and a frame from a metal corner with a falling cover through which the animals fall into the box is mounted on top. Two identical swinging covers are suspended on the axes from this frame, overlapping the clearance of the frame.
Bottom to the outer sides of the covers are attached boxes – counterweights, which, when the main frame is horizontal, outweigh the longer inner sides of the covers and lift them up to the stop on the frame. Both covers must rotate freely on the axles. Do not touch the walls of the box and do not cling to each other with the end faces. Soil is poured into the counterweight boxes so that the half of the lid lowered in the box rises quickly up flush with the frame and is pressed against the stop with a force of 200-300 g.
The alarm device should work without delay and release the covers while pressing them. This device consists of a gatehouse and a guard in the form of cranked plates pivotally mounted on a steel wire bracket nailed under the frame to the upper part of the side wall. They interact with each other so that the gatehouse holds one half of the lid in a horizontal position, while the second half is in the same position.
When the beast, having walked along one half of the lid, steps on the second, both halves end faces fall down almost to a vertical position and the beast falls into the box. Then, under the action of counterweights, they rise to a horizontal position. The gatehouse picks up the half of the lid adjacent to it, and the gatekeeper picks up the second half of the cover and presses the gatehouse to it. Thus, both halves of the lid again automatically alert.
From the trap of animals, they get out through the ajar halves of the lid. Or arrange a door in the side wall of the box (Scheme e). Boxed stationary live traps are installed on piles in the aft section of the reservoir. On both sides, gangways are placed to the box at an angle of 45 degrees – boards. On them, the nutria are taken to a box where they regularly spread food. In non-production time, falling lids wedge.
In nutritive live-traps, a simpler one-way guarding can be used, as in the Arctic fox. In this case, one gangway is put to the box from the side of the falling half of the lid fixed by the gatehouse.
Stationary live traps for birds, device, principle of operation, manufacturing, installation and configuration.
Hunters hunt side game with ground pits – buckets and cages made in the form of wicker from poles and rods of conical baskets up to 2 meters high and up to 70 cm wide. Such a bucket basket is put upside down and a polished balancing stick or disk is suspended above it. And above them, twigs with tassels of berries are tied (patterns w, h). Birds that have arrived to peck berries try to sit on a balancing stick or disk and fall into the bucket.
Based on materials from the book Hunting Samolov and Unauthorized Fishing. Directory.
Gerasimov Yu. A.