Mouth, this is a trap of very ancient origin. Commonly used for prey fox, fox, wolverine, lynx, hare. The jaw trap has many modifications depending on the conditions and purpose of use. Usually the mouth consists of a floor, two walls and oppression (crush) located above them. Oppression beats the beast, knocking down the alert along its body. A mouth is made of wood. The scope is limited to forest and tundra zones, in the latter case, the material for making the mouth is fin – a forest brought by sea or river.
Stationary trap mouth, purpose and device, tundra, soil trough, box and portable trough mouth.
The manufacture of all stationary pastes should be carried out in the warm season, as it is necessary to dig or hammer some structural elements into the ground. It is necessary to take into account the fact that, in order for the mouths not to frighten away the beast, they must “stand up”. In this case, the new mouth is eroded and washed by the rains, the freshly cut wood fades.
Bending to the guard’s eye traps should be left in an inclined position, removing it from the support stakes. This will prevent the structure from swaying in windy conditions. The mouths are very durable tools – with good care they can last up to 30-40 years. In the recent past, the number of mouths served by one hunter-fishery ranged from 75 to 150, depending on the area of fishing.
At present, the use of pastes is declining, despite a number of indisputable advantages of this type of airplanes: the possibility of manufacturing from improvised material, reliability in operation and high catchability. Next, the most common types of pastes and various designs of guards will be considered..
Tundra jaws, design and device.
The tundra mouth has the following structure. On a natural or artificial earthen mound 10 to 60 cm high, 110-150 cm long and 40-50 cm wide flattened from above, a corridor 60-80 cm long is constructed from stakes 4-5 cm in diameter and 60-80 cm high. Width corridor 30-45 cm, the distance between the stakes in the wall of the corridor 5-10 cm.
The bulk hill and the walls of the corridor are located so that their length coincides with the direction of the prevailing winds in winter. The hill allows you to blow snow from the trap, and the applied snow in the tail of the mouth does not interfere with the work of the dope, as it is below the floor. A corridor of stakes limits the animal’s access to the bait from the sides.
Under the conditions of the tundra, it is not recommended to arrange the walls of the corridor from poles, chopping blocks or boards, since the trap is quickly clogged with snow and fails. The floor of the mouth is the leveled surface of the earthen hill. To avoid freezing of the beast that fell into the mouth, the floor is covered with branches or bark. Some traders use a sheet of plywood to cover the floor..
In the case of freezing the beast together with the sheet is carried away to the thawing room, this prevents the freezing of hair and tearing of bald spots on the skin. Between the walls of the corridor lay a log or several smaller logs fastened together. This part of the structure is called oppression, or crush. The length of the yoke is 3-4 meters, and the width is less than the width of the corridor by 5-10 cm.
Common Tundra Maw Trap Device.
It is not recommended to use resinous fragments of wood for the manufacture of oppression, since the fur of the animal is very dirty. The front end of the yoke protrudes 25-30 cm from the walls of the corridor. The tail end of the yoke is laid on a support. As support are used: log stump; the crossbar mounted on short stakes; pile of stones, etc. The height of the support of the tail of the yoke should be at the same level with the floor of the mouth.
At the front end of the yoke, 5-7 cm from the edge, a perpendicularly cut into the groove is a 2-3-meter-long and 3-4-cm-thick pole. Other methods of attaching the poles (rhombi) to the oppression are also used: passing through holes drilled at the front end oppression, or fastening in a groove on the end of the oppression logs. The free end of the rombie protrudes from the yoke by 2-2.5 meters and rests on a fork made of stakes.
The height of the supporting part of the fork is approximately equal to the height of the floor of the mouth. The other end of the rombie stands only 10-12 cm from the yoke. When guarding the mouth, it is placed on the short end of the hoe, which is a meter stick 2-3 cm thick. The hoe acts as a different lever, freely balancing in a fork or at the end of a support column 50-60 cm high above the floor, 4-5 cm thick.
The support column is driven into the ground slightly in front of the mouth. Leaning on a fork, the hoe supports the front end of the yoke in a raised position with a short shoulder. The fixing of oppression in this state is achieved with the help of a “simka” rope tied to the long shoulder of the moir and connected to the trigger of the mouth.
Soil trough mouth, design and device.
The main disadvantage of the tundra mouth is that predators often spoil the fur of animals caught in the mouth. The given design of the mouth practically eliminates fur defects. The construction of the corridor from stakes on a natural or bulk mound corresponds to the above tundra mouth design. The differences are as follows: the oppression of the trough mouth is made of a log cut 3 meters long and 30 cm in diameter at the butt.
You can take a log of a larger diameter, but in this case it is necessary to squeeze the edges of the yoke so that there is a gap between the walls of the corridor and the yoke laid in it, providing free vertical movement of the yoke. From the bottom, oppression should be well planed. 15 cm from the front edge of the yoke from the underside, an ax or tesla is cut down a trough-like depression, 120 cm long, 22 cm wide and 5-6 cm deep.
The recess should be carefully cleaned with a chisel. The rough finish of the beating surface of oppression, and in particular of the trough, leads to the freezing of the hair of the beast to oppression and the formation of defects on the skin. If there are no logs of the required diameter in place, the oppression is prepared from thinner logs, chopping them together and fastening them together with transverse ligaments into an oblique groove. Also for the manufacture of oppression, you can use the chopping block 8-10 cm thick. The trough in these cases is arranged from scraps of boards nailed from the sides of the block..
The weight of oppression should be 40-50 kg. With less weight, oppression is heavier, imposing and securing pieces of turf or stones on it. To fix the turf in the upper part of the oppression, several nails or wooden pegs are driven in opposite the trough, a piece of turf is planted on them. Weighting should be carried out before frost, so that with cooling the sod freezes to oppression. It should be noted that any increase in the surface of oppression contributes to its swaying by the wind and the drift of its mouth with snow.
A through hole with a section of 6-8 cm is drilled in the tail of the oppression at a distance of 10-15 cm from the edge. During installation, the tail of the yoke is put on through a hole thrust into the ground behind the knoll, having a cross at the upper end – an emphasis for oppression. The crosspiece keeps the oppression from sliding back in the wary position and does not allow the oppression to warp during the fall. Oppression should freely rise and fall, not delayed by a persistent stake.
General arrangement of soil trough trap mouth.
You can use an H-shaped stand to stop the tail of the yoke, in this case, on the lower surface of the yoke, across, a bar is printed to prevent the yoke from sliding. The yoke is laid on the transverse part of the rack so that the bar is in front of the rack, slightly protruding beyond its dimensions (2-3 cm), and the tail end would protrude 10 cm.
Regardless of the method of attachment, the bar holding the tail end of the yoke in a horizontal position should be on the same level as the earthen mound. Otherwise, the oppression will lie on an earthen mound at an angle, not blocking prey from predators. Collars are arranged at the front edge of the corridor. They are formed by two support stakes. Stake length 80 cm, diameter 4-5 cm.
Stakes drive on both sides of the corridor to a depth of 30 cm, stepping back from the front stake, forming the corridor, 5-7 cm forward. A crossbeam is nailed to the support stake, or the crossbeam is nailed to one of the stakes on which it rotates as on an axis. At the other end, the crossbar rests on an evenly cut ledge at the end of the other supporting stake. A step is necessary so that the crossbar is not pulled off the stake by the pressure of the hoe when guarding the mouth.
To put pressure in the corridor with such a device of the crossbar, to clear the mouth of snow, to take out the crossbar with a beast frozen to it is much easier than with a firmly fixed crossbar. The end of the yoke in the lowered position should protrude by 5-6 cm beyond the front edge of the knoll, and in the raised position – by the gate of the mouth, about the same. The height in the gates from the floor to the bottom surface of the yoke should not exceed 32 cm.
One edge of the reed is tied to the front end of the yoke – sticks 1 meter long and 3-4 cm in diameter. With a guard, the mouth, having raised the front edge of the yoke, throws the collar over the crossbeam and orient it almost along the yoke axis. The free end of the hoe is held in this position by a rope (SIM card) connecting it to the trigger of the mouth. Inside the corridor, a board or plywood is laid on the earthen floor, 5-7 cm longer than the size of the trough arranged in the yoke in length and width.
Box mouth, design and device.
The airplanes of this design are used in taiga and forest tundra conditions, where there are no long strong winds, since the tightly fitted walls that form the corridor and the shape of the box itself exclude the blowing of snow and airplanes brought into the box mouth and often fail.
A box mouth is made as follows: the mouth of the mouth is made up of poles, block, etc., laying them on the transverse stumps of logs. The size of the assembled floor is 2 meters in length and 50 cm in width. The walls are strengthened between 4-6 pairs of stakes driven into the ground. After laying the chopping block or logs, the stakes holding the walls are tied in pairs for structural strength. Box wall height 50-60 cm.
General device of the grazing box trap.
The general device of the box trap grazing on the legs.
The oppression of box jaws is made, as a rule, from two non-thick logs. The system of levers supporting oppression is similar to that described for the tundra and trough jaws. The most perfect design is the box mouth on the legs. A slight modernization allows you to exploit this type of mouth both in the tundra and in the taiga. High legs and the presence of the box practically exclude the access of predators and mouse-like rodents to the captured beast, as well as skidding of the samolov with snow.
Portable trough mouth, design and device.
The design has a number of undeniable advantages when operating in tundra conditions. The possibility of carrying out repair work in winter conditions and the possibility of transportation distinguish it from the above systems. A portable mouth is made as follows: a rectangular frame is assembled from two bars of 1.7 meters long, 9 cm wide and 6 cm thick, and two bars of 45-50 cm long, 9 cm wide and 9 cm thick. Grooves are used to fasten the bars..
In each of the longitudinal bars of the frame, 12 support holes are drilled with a diameter of 3 cm. They should be drilled somewhat obliquely, so that the tops of the stakes inserted into them and forming a mouth corridor have a certain inclination to the outside. The length of the stakes of the corridor should be selected so that the first pair closest to the gate, rises 40 cm above the frame, and the last 30 cm.
Common device of a portable trough trap of a mouth.
The sockets under the stakes must be through, so that in case of breakage it is possible to easily knock out the remains from the nest and install a new stake in return. On the inner side of the corridor, in the side faces of the frame, chamfers of 3 cm wide and 1.5 cm deep are chosen, into which the floor is inserted when installing the mouth. The pad device is the same as described above. When installing the mouth, the space between the pad and the floor should be filled with snow or other improvised material so as to completely avoid deflection
The supporting stakes forming the collar are made of beams with a height of 50 cm. They are inserted into drilled or hollowed through holes in the longitudinal bars of the frame. For the strength of their fastening in the nests, the stakes of the collars are wedged. The hole for the stake corridor, which carries the functions of a guard stake, is performed similarly in the middle part of the longitudinal bar. Watch stake height 30-35 cm, diameter 4 cm.
The crossbar for the gates, the oppression and the hoe are arranged in the same way as in the construction of the trough mouth. The emphasis for oppression is made in the form of a cross with a stub firmly embedded in it. In the thrust stake, several through holes with a diameter of 3 cm are drilled at a distance of 5 cm from each other. A transverse peg is inserted into one of the holes, acting as a support for the tail end of the yoke.
The presence of other holes allows you to adjust the height of the support of the yoke. The manufacture of oppression is described above (see soil trough mouth). When installing a portable mouth, the emphasis of the yoke should be placed so that the trough exactly falls over the corridor, and the front end of the yoke protrudes 5-6 cm beyond the collar of the mouth.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..