The earliest stone tools that came to us were created about 2.5 million years ago. The first tool for an ancient person was the so-called chopped stones – stones with one sharp edge. Such a stone was clamped in a fist and inflicted powerful blows from top to bottom..
Stone axes, a brief history of development and improvement, their use as weapons and tools for household needs.
Initially, found stones of a suitable shape were used, subsequently a person learned to process a stone. Usually, flint was used as the material. The process of manufacturing a stone-topping motor and, in general, stone products looked something like this. One piece of flint was fixed, the other was used as a hammer. With its help, unnecessary particles were chipped off from the workpiece and the future product was given the necessary shape.
Subsequently, stone tools also began to grind and polish. Stone tools crumbled quickly enough, so they required frequent replacement. An important step was the unification of chopped and sticks into one tool, that is, the invention of a stone ax. An additional lever significantly increased the impact force and made working with the tool more convenient.
The method of attaching a stone chopping part and a wooden handle could be different. The stone could be mounted in a split handle using a brace or rubber resin, or simply driven into a massive handle. In the late Stone Age, when the processing of stone reached a high level, stone piers were already made with a hole for the handle – an eye. Thus, the ax looked almost similar to the modern one, although it was made of stone.
Stone axes as tools and military weapons.
Stone axes, due to their relatively large mass, were primarily a labor device designed for household needs. Only in the era of the Late Stone Age – Neolithic, with the growth of mastery of stone processing, military samples began to appear. Usually these were small hatchets designed for one-handed combat. Obsidian combat axes were also found among the native inhabitants of the American continent, at the time of Spanish colonization.
Bronze jewelry in modern Europe began to replace stone from about the 2nd millennium BC. But stone axes, due to their accessibility and cheapness, continued to exist in parallel with metal for a long time..
In different regions, the transition from stone to metal tools took place at different times. In some parts of the globe, non-metal tools, including stone axes, are still used. These are mainly African and Australian tribes that have preserved a primitive communal way of life..
Based on the book Small Encyclopedia of Cold Steel.