The problem of the survival and salvation of the pilot after having to leave the aircraft in adverse climatic and geographical regions has not lost its relevance at present. Analysis of the results of search and rescue operations in these areas showed that the pilot’s rescue time is on average 5.4–7.3 hours, and when the distance of the scene of an aviation incident is more than 400 km exceeds 15 hours.
Survival and rescue of the pilot after the forced departure of the aircraft, factors, emergency landing equipment, rescue craft, portable and airborne emergency reserve.
In the case of intense exposure to extreme factors (flooding in ice water, injury, loss of NAZA, damage to equipment and others), the actual terms of saving the pilot often exceed the time to save survival – the ability and ability to survive.
Survival is the activity of a pilot aimed at preserving life, health, and working capacity in an autonomous existence. The forecast of survival and salvation is determined by many elements of the objective and subjective order, which can be conditionally combined into three groups: anthropological, environmental, and material and technical.
Objective and subjective factors affecting the survival of the pilot.
Anthropological factors characterize the functional state, physical and psychophysiological readiness of the pilot for action in an autonomous existence, and reserve capabilities of the body. Environmental factors determine the conditions of autonomous existence. The tougher the natural conditions, the shorter the periods of autonomous existence, the greater the stress required for the struggle for life, the more expensive the price that each error is paid for.
Material and technical factors characterize the means of ensuring the livelihoods of people in autonomous conditions of existence: clothing, emergency equipment, devices for signaling and communication, water production, a water-food supply, emergency swimming equipment and more.
The emergence of pathological and extreme conditions as a result of the action on the body of biotic and abiotic environmental factors can acquire an independent, dominant value in human life. For example, after an emergency landing, according to AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development – a NATO advisory group on aerospace research and development), about 70% of people get injuries of varying degrees.
As a result of this, the probability of salvation is reduced by 80% already in the first 24 hours after an aviation incident. In the absence of injuries, the probability of a favorable outcome for the pilot’s autonomous existence decreases only on the third day.
Emergency escape and landing equipment, rescue vehicles, portable emergency reserve (NAZ), on-board emergency reserve (BAZ).
To save the pilot’s life when leaving the aircraft and in conditions of autonomous existence, a large number of emergency and rescue equipment is required. The group of means of emergency escape from the aircraft and landing includes:
Individual parachute suspension systems (IPS-72) and parachutes.
Detachable capsules and cabins.
Chassis with emergency cameras.
Soft mechanical pneumatic systems.
Rescue boats include:
Aircraft lifejackets and belts (ASZH-58, ASP-74).
Inflatable Aircraft Rescue Boats (MLAS-1).
Swimming liferafts (PSN-1).
Swimming systems for marine and high-altitude marine rescue kits (MSC-3M, MSC-5, VMSK-2M, VMSK-4).
In order to ensure the autonomous existence of the pilot after a forced landing or splashdown, two main types of aviation emergency supplies are provided. Wearable emergency reserve (NAZ) is intended for one crew member and remains with him after bailout and landing with a parachute. On-board emergency reserve (BAZ) is intended for the entire crew and passengers making an emergency landing.
The assembly of NAZs and BAZs is carried out taking into account the type of aircraft, the design features of the ejection seat, and the aviation-based area. Regardless of the configuration, the following emergency equipment groups are presented in each NAZ and BAZ:
– Radio communications: portable emergency radio stations, beacons.
– Means of visual alarm: signal cartridges of night and day action, mortars with a firing mechanism, flashing or electric torch, signal mirror, signal powder.
– Emergency food supply: canned, concentrated and dehydrated foods.
– Emergency supply of water and means for its production: storage tanks, extraction means (solar capacitors), desalination (solar distillers, chemical desalination plants) and disinfection (bactericidal preparations).
– Camping property: machete knife, saw blade, compass, filter glasses, means of producing fire (water-resistant matches, dry fuel), a set of fishing accessories, a medical cape.
– First-aid kit: hemostatic tourniquet, dressings, iodine, antibiotics, anti-shock drugs, repellents and more.
– Lifeboats: inflatable lifeboats, rafts and vests.
Based on materials from the book Physiological Foundations of Human Life under Extreme Conditions.
V. S. Novikov, S. I. Soroko.