Asylum protects against insects, sun, wind, rain, snow, heat / cold and enemy surveillance. It will be live. In some areas need for shelter prevails over hunger and even thirst. For example, a long stay in the cold causes of fatigue and exhaustion. And an exhausted person is less observant, because of which he loses chances of survival.
Try to find natural shelters or build you yourself. One common mistake in building a shelter It should not be too hot, especially in cold weather.
The most important shelter – uniforms
5-1. The main protection during survival will become your form. This point is true regardless of the heat, cold, tropics, desert or Arctic. Your outfit – your protection. It should be carefully and worn carefully. Remember the term “colder” (approx. Translator),
Choosing a place for shelter
5-2. Being in an emergency shelter – start looking for him as soon as possible. Observe two conditions when choosing a place –
- Nearby there are the necessary materials for create shelter.
- The place is spacious and comfortably.
5-3. Focus on your tasks and security. In addition, the place must –
- Provide shelter from the review of the enemy.
- Have masked escape routes.
- Suitable for signaling.
- Trees and trees.
- Be protected from insects, reptiles and poisonous plants.
5-4. Remember also the problems that may arise in the local environment. For example, avoid –
- Flash flood areas in the foothills.
- Lavin or rockfalls in the highlands.
- Places near water bodies below the water level.
5-5. Some areas are strongly influenced by the time of year. Perfect shelter different in summer and winter. In the cold months it will take windproof place water and water. The water of the insects.
5-6. Picking up shelter Remember the abbreviation SUCCESS (in the original – bliss) and the following basic principles:
- U is a secluded area.
- C – fusion with the environment.
- P – Kick some compact place.
- E – subtle silhouette.
- X is a chaotic form.
Types of shelters
5-7. Looking for shelter consider the type of shelter you need. Also answer the following questions:
- How much time will it take to build a shelter?
- Will it protect from nature (sun, wind, rain, snow)?
- Are there tools for building? Or can you make them?
- Is there the right amount of materials to build?
5-8. To answer these questions shelter types and materials necessary for their construction.
Single poncho canopy
5-9. It takes a little time and requires a minimum of equipment: poncho, 2–3 m of rope or paracord at a distance of 2 m from each other. Before you choose support trees, find out the direction of the wind. Make sure the wind is on.
Figure 5-1. Canopy from poncho
5-10. Procedure for building:
- Tie a hood poncho. Tightly pull on the cord, fold it up, fold it in length, fold it up.
- Cut the rope in half. Knock on the neck with a knot. The second is in the other.
- 2.5 cm from the grommets tie 2 sticks about 10 cm long onto the cord. They will prevent rainwater from flowing along the rope canopy. There is no need for any further information.
- Tie ropes to tree trunk as high as possible. Bridging with a cannonet and a half-joints with a quick unleashing (pirated) node.
- Spread the pons and hammer the pegs into the grommets.
5-11. If you plan to use shelter more than one night or going to rain tent using a cord. The necklace is worn in the middle of the hood. Make sure the cord is not slack.
5-12. Another way is to install a vertical support in the center. canopy. However, in the shelter.
5-13. It can be used for any protection.
5-14. Put some insulating material inside (in order not to lose heat through the ground) shelters.
Note: in a calm state, 80% of the heat is lost through contact with the ground.
5-15. To reduce asylum silhouette adding two little things. It is not necessary to make a note that it is not a belt. shelters). Secondly, fix it on the ground with the pointed sticks, as described above.
5-16. This awning (Figure 5-2) is hardly noticeable. But not as roomy as canopy, to observe the terrain. For the construction will be required: a poncho, two ropes 1.5-2.5 m, 6 pointed pegs 30 cm and two trees 2-3 meters apart.
Figure 5-2. Awning poncho
5-17. Stages of construction awning:
- Tie a hood poncho as in the case of single canopy.
- Rope on each side of the poncho.
- At the distance of 2–3 meters, the poncho.
- Pull one edge poncho hammered into the ground, inserted into the corner grommets.
- Repeat on the other side.
5-18. If needed central support use the same methods as a lean-to canopy. As it can also be used awning (Figure 5-3). Use two branches, 90-120 cm long, to build an A-frame. Tie a hood to support the center. awning.
Figure 5-3. Awning poncho awning
Three-pole parachute hog
5-19. If there is a parachute, three poles and time – build wigwam. It is quite easy and takes a little time. It is burned. It is large enough to accommodate firewood.
5-20. Wigwam It can be built (Figure 5-4) using a parachute. When using a standard parachute, three poles 3.5-4.5 m long and about 5 cm in diameter will be required.
Figure 5-4. Three-pole parachute hog
5-21. Stages wigwam construction:
- Put them on the ground and tie them on one side.
- Raise the poles and pull them apart to form a tripod.
- For more stability, put extra poles on a tripod. Five or six. Do not bind.
- The entrance perpendicular.
- Decompose the parachute wigwam frame and find nylon exhaust loop at the top of the dome.
- Put the loop on the top of one of the free-standing poles. It is where the connection ends.
- Wrap the dome around one side of the tripod. As the whole dome is used, the wigwam walls will consist of two layers of fabric. You only need to wrap half the frame. The car is in the opposite direction.
- Build the entrance, wrapping around the free standing poles. You can be close by.
- Fill the bottom of the wigwam.
- If there is a wall inside wigwam.
5-22. To build this wigwam a parachute (14 wedge) and a cord and a needle (Fig. 5-5). The slings are cut, leaving pieces of a 40-50 cm long sling on the dome.
Figure 5-5. Wigwam parachute and one pole
5-23. Stages of construction single pole wigwam:
- Find a place for shelters with a diameter of about 4 meters.
- The lower lines are stretched.
- Last line folded in half.
- The line of the peg and the line.
- Continue until all lines are attached.
- Loosely attach it to the center line. It should be noted that it can be tensed and vertically. Tie the lines.
- Tie the fabric tightly to the pole.
- Using the strings of a dome, leaving 1–1.2 m to enter.
Frameless Wigwam Parachute
5-24. Using the parachute on one pole, except the pole (Fig. 5-6), you can build frameless wigwam.
5-25. The construction of frameless wigwam consists of the following stages:
- Pre-cut piece of a piece of a sling.
- Throw the line through the tree.
- There is a gap between a diameter of 3.5–4.3 m.
- One of the lines of the peg.
- The lines to the pegs.
5-26. It is a tidy sweep. Then tie again.
Figure 5-6. Frameless Wigwam Parachute
5-27. Single asylum (Figure 5-7) is a tree of three poles. One pole should be 4.5 m long, and the other two should be 3 m.
5-28. Construction single shelters:
- Secure the pole 4.5 m on the tree at the waist level.
- Place it on the ground on either side.
- Throw a folded parachute canopy over the top.
- Tidings upholstered inside and outside of the floor.
- Beat it on the end of the road.
- Cover the entrance with excess material.
Figure 5-7. Single asylum
5-29. Parachute material protects against wind. Shelter is small and easily heated. If you carefully use the candle in such a shelter, you can maintain a comfortable temperature. However, even during small precipitation, it will not be possible.
5-30. Hammock It is hungry using 6–8 fractions of a distance of 4.5 meters from each other (Figure 5–8). You can build a hammock as follows:
- Spread a wedges out of it.
- Beat the back of the floor and the bottom of the bottom layer.
- Hang up hammock between trees, It was slightly higher. There are no links with trees. The hammock.
- Overlap the bottom of the fabric. Spear to fix the hammock.
Figure 5-8. Parachute hammock
5-31. Being in the forest of natural materials field canopy (Figure 5-9) without tools or with a knife. Protect it from the elements.
5-32. It will be required; one pole long and 2.5 cm in diameter; 5-8 poles with a length of 3 m and a diameter of 2.5 cm as beams; support for trees; and other poles for the plexus poles.
5-33. Under construction canopy in the following way:
- Tie a 2 meter pole This is a horizontal prop. If there are no trees, there is no connection between trees and trees.
- End of horizontal support. As with all sheds make sure it protects against wind.
- To braid the beams with young branches or vines.
- Overlay the frame with leaves, spruce branches, needles or grass. Start laying the floor tile
- Lay out straw, leaves, needles or grass inside the shelter as bedding.
Figure 5-9. Field canopy and fire reflector
5-34. In cold weather add to Aweigh screen to make it more comfortable (Figure 5-9). To do this, drive four 1.5 m beams into the ground. Braid them with flexible branches, as in wattle. In the middle of the screen This ability not only makes it more heat resistant. The wall doesn’t fall apart.
5-35. With a little more effort, you can build a dryer. Cut several rods with a diameter of 2 cm. The height of the screen can be supported. The back wall of the reflective wall. Tie crossbars. Now you have a place for drying clothes, meat or fish.
5-36. Wet ground or forever wet ground swamp bed (Figure 5-10) protect against water. Choosing a variety of materials.
Figure 5-10. Swamp bed
5-37. Construction of the marsh bed consists of the following steps:
- It is a rectangle. It’s not a problem.
- More than the size of the rectangle. They should also be strong enough.
- Strengthen the two poles on the trees. Make sure they do not reach the tide or rise of water.
- The rectangle is cut slightly longer than the length of the rectangle. Put them on two side racks and fasten.
- Cover up a soft bed.
- In the case of fire, it is necessary to make
5-39. Do not forget about the natural shelters shelter. For example, caves, rocky crevices, bushes, small trees, cobwebs, and thick water. However, choosing a natural refuge –
- Stay away from lowlands such as a ravine, a narrow valley or a river bed. At night, it’s colder there than on high ground. Thick bushy lowlands also harbor more insects.
- Explore the venomous snakes, ticks, scorpions and stinging ants.
- Dead branches, rain branches, coconuts or other natural vegetation.
5-40. Forest fencing and leaves (fig. 5-11) – one of the warmest. When a shelter is build it.
5-41. Stages of the construction of felted cover:
- Build up a pair of short beams
- Fasten the belt.
- It is a wedge-shaped frame. Make sure you have enough water to drain moisture.
- Criss-cross put on thin sticks. Lattice, often enough to keep the roofing material (grass, needles, leaves), without falling inside.
- At least 1m thick
- Thickness of at least 30 cm.
- Cover for the shelter.
- It is a final touch.
Figure 5-11. Felted cover
5-42. If you are in the cold, you can arrange a shelter “snow pit“(Fig. 5-12).
5-43. Snow pit is built as follows:
- The tree of water.
- How do you want to reach the ground.
- Seal the snow at the top and walls shelters, to make the shelter stronger.
- Chop the spruce branches. From the above. Cold snow and snow.
5-44. Chapter 15 explores other shelters for arctic or cold climates.
Figure 5-12. Shelter “snow pit”
Shadow Shelter on the Shore
5-45. Shadow Shelter on the Shore (fig. 5-13) protects from sun, wind, rain and heat. Easy to build using natural materials.
5-46. Stages of construction shadow shelter:
- Material for support beams and shovels.
- Choose a place for shelters above the high tide point.
- In the sand, it will be in direct sunlight. It can comfortably lie down.
- Pour the three sides of the trench. The higher the embankment shelter.
- Lay on the trench beams (fin or other natural material) for the roof.
- Increase the entrance to the shelter by expanding trench one side.
- A laying on the bottom of a trench.
Figure 5-13. Shadow Shelter on the Shore
Shelters in the desert
5-47. In drylands, it is important to consider the time and effort for shelter buildings. If there is a cloth, for example, it’s a tarp or a parachute, it can be used in combination with the terrain features such as ledges, sand mounds, hollows between dunes or stones.
5-48. When using ledges:
- There is a tarpaulin on the edge.
- It gives the maximum possible shade.
5-49. On the sand:
- Sand dune as one of the walls shelters.
- Where there is a ballast, do it?
- Give your shadow shadow.
There is a gap of 35–40 cm between the layers of fabric. This will reduce the air temperature in shelter.
Figure 5-14. Deeper shelter in the desert
5-50. In-depth shelter (fig. 5-14) allows for a daily heat equal to 16-22 degrees in the desert. However, its construction requires more time and effort. Since physical effort increases persistence, which leads to dehydration, building shelter before the onset of heat.
5-51. Under construction in-depth shelter So:
- Find a depression or hollow between dunes or rocks. If necessary, you can lie comfortably in it.
- From three sides trench pour the shaft of sand.
- From the bottom of the trench
- Cover the trench with a cloth.
- Or cr cr
5-52. If you have enough material, you can reduce the temperature in shelter, It’s an air gap of 30–45 cm between the layers. This will reduce the temperature of the air inside by 11–22 degrees.
Figure 5-15. Open desert refuge
5-53. Other shelter It is a design that is different. For better sun protection, parachute fabric are needed (Figure 5-15). White color is better reflected the sun’s rays, and the inner layer should be darker.
Survival Guide for the US Army. Chapter 5: Asylum