If during survival you have map and compass, move for help. Learn beforehand. There are several methods orienteering by the sun and the stars. However, they will only give a general direction. The terrain of the region.
Find out what you are going to. Applies to landmarks. Knowledge of the terrain determine the exact direction of motion and navigate.
Table of contents:
– Orientation by the sun and shade
– Star orientation
– Making a homemade compass
– Other orienteering methods
Orientation by the sun and shade
18-1. Determine the direction the sun and the sun. Sets in the west, but it is not always clear in these directions. There are some seasonal variations. Shadows are moving in the opposite direction from the sun. In the northern hemisphere of the Sun, they move from west to east and north west. At the same time in the southern hemisphere – to the south. Having a certain practice, it’s not possible. For this type orienteering There are two main ways – by shadow and clock.
18-2. The first way to find the right way is to find a clear shadow. This way orienteering simple enough, accurate and consists of stages:
- Stick a stick in the ground. Mark something with a shadow edge. This is always the mark on the globe, regardless of the location on the globe.
- Wait 10-15 minutes until the shadow moves. Mark this edge in this position. This is east.
- This is approximately the line east of the west.
- It is the north in the front. This way orienteering accurate anywhere in the world.
18-3. The second method is more accurate. In the morning, stick on the stick. Using a piece of rope, draw an arc around the stick. At noon, the shadow will become shorter and disappear. In the afternoon, it will touch its arc. Draw a line between two marks and you’ll get exact direction “East-west” (Figure 18-1).
Figure 18-1. Shadow Orientation Method
Orientation by the hour
18-4. Determine the direction of the world You can also use a clock with at least one hand. It will be more accurate. Remember, this method is. If you only have an electronic clock on it, in accordance with the current time. For orienteering use this drawing. For more accurate reading.
18-5. Horizonally holding the clock The “12” will indicate the north (Figure 18-2). If you can’t understand what’s going on in the north. Before the noon in the west.
Note: If you want to watch the north.
18-6. 12 points to the sun. It will make it possible to point to the north (fig. 18-2).
Figure 18-2. Orientation method hours
18-7. There is another 24-hour orientation method by the hour. The local time in the 24-hour format is divided into two. Then it’s time. In the northern hemisphere, he will be sent to the north. For example, local time is 14:00. When divided by two, it is 7:00. Holding the clock horizontally, direct 7 to the sun and 12 will point north. In the southern hemisphere, direct to the sun;
18-8. It is visible only due to the reflection of the sun’s rays. It has been the skyline of the sky. The sun is “young” or “the sun”. It grows and becomes full. Losing stripes on the left side. This information can be used to orienteering.
18-9. If the moon appears before sunset, If after midnight – to the east. The “east-west.”
18-10. Depending on which hemisphere you are in for orienteering You can use different constellations. Each hemisphere is described below.
18-11. Main landmarks constellations the northern hemisphere are the Great Bear or the Bucket and Cassiopeia (Figure 18-3). In the sky. It is less than a degree from the North Pole. The Little Star Dipper is a bucket, which can be confused with the Big Dipper. However, it’s not. To avoid confusion, try using both the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia. They are, as a rule, are counterclockwise around the North Star, located in the center. Ursa Major is a seven-star bucket-shaped constellation. This is a pointers “pointers” because they point to the Polar Star. Ursa Major dipper. Extend this line. On this line is the Polar Star. It is also important to note that it is always above the horizon. For example, being at 35 degrees north latitude, the Polar Star is more than 35 degrees from the horizon. This is the limit for the Big Dipper, the Cassiopeia and the Pole Star in the sky.
18-12. It is a “M” pattern that can be seen as a smoothed or “lazy.” Extend this line between the base and the top “M”. The Polar Star will be between Cassiopeia and Ursa Major (Big Dipper).
18-13. Finding the Polar Star;
Figure 18-3. Ursa Major and Cassiopeia
18-14. There is no reason for the hemisphere, as a guide use the constellation Southern Cross (Fig. 18-4). It consists of five stars. Four bright stars form a cross. The two stars are used as a pointer. To determine the distance, mentally measure 4.5–5 distances. It was the second day of the day. secondly, it is true. It is a very dark and devoid of stars. This area is called the coal pouch. Look down at the intersection and determine the direction of motion. With static survival, it can be seen in the daylight.
Figure 18-4. South cross
Making a homemade compass
18-15. Compass can be made from a piece of metal (for example, a needle to a razor blade) and a piece of metal. Metal needs to be magnetized or polarized. Slowly rub it with a piece of silk or gently running through the hair to one side. It has been a lot of fun. All movements in one direction only. The battery can be magnetized electrically. The wire must be insulated. To prevent closure. The battery must be at least 2 volts. It ends on the battery poles. Ring of metal in one direction. The needle will become an electromagnet. If you hang up on the north-south.
18-16. Compass it is better to use it, it’s a waterproofing pattern, it’s a waterproofing pattern. It can be used as a direction indicator. Insert the needle into the center of the container. It should be flush with the closure of the lid. Glue wood resin or molten plastic. Magnetize one end.
Other orienteering methods
18-17. An ancient sign that moss on a tree it is not clear. In fact, it was found on the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere is the opposite. See your stumps. There are more vegetation, the rings are wider. On the side facing the poles, the rings are closer to each other.
18-18. It can be useful Direction of the wind.
18-19. AT orienteering The slopes will also help. The Northern Slopes is often more than the southern ones. In the summer, snow can lie on the northern slopes. In the winter, the snow melts first. The snow cover In the southern hemisphere is the opposite.
Orientation and search