Survival Guide for the US Army: Fire – Mining and Maintenance

Skill spread the fire can play a role in an emergency between life and death. Warmth and comfort. It can be used for the body. Or for water treatment, sterilization of bandages, distress alert, as well as protection from animals. the fire also psychologically supports instilling calm and creating a friendly atmosphere. You can also use it to create tools and weapons.

the fire it can also be seen. Or cause forest fires, or destroy the necessary equipment. It can cause burns and carbon monoxide poisoning when used in a shelter.

Rate of fire of enemies.

Basic principles of fire

7-1. To make a fire it is important to understand its basic principles. Fuel (in a non-gas state) does not ignite immediately and by itself. When heated, it produces a gas that combines with oxygen from the air and lights up.

7-2. Understanding the concept triangle of fire need for proper breeding and maintenance. The three sides of the triangle correspond to oxygen, heat and fuel. If you remove any of these components the fire will go out. The most efficient use of fire. Know your relationship is practice.

Site selection and preparation

7-3. Choose a place and kind of fire. Before making a fire, consider –

  • The area is terrain and climate.
  • Available materials and tools.
  • Time. How much time is in stock?
  • Need. For what the fire?
  • Security. How close is the enemy?

7-4. Find a dry place that –

  • Protected from the wind.
  • Well located relative to the shelter.
  • Will guide heat in the right direction.
  • It has a supply of wood or other fuel (Table 7-4).

7-5. In the forest area or the forest area. Clear a circle with a diameter of at least 1 meter to the fire not spread.

7-6. If time allows, put campfire screen using logs or stones. He will help direct heat it can be seen in Figure 7-1. However, the wind will need to maintain fire.


Do not use wet or porous rocks (it can be used as a translator note), they can explode when heating up.

Figure 7-1. Types of screens around the fireFigure 7-1. Types of screens around the fire

7-5. In some situations underground hearth best meet your needs. It masks the fire and is perfect for cooking. To build an underground or Dakota hearth (Figure 7-2) do the following –

  • Dig a hole.
  • On the windy side, dig a tunnel for ventilation.
  • Make a fire in the pit, as shown.

Figure 7-2. Dakota hearthFigure 7-2. Dakota hearth

7-8. In snowy areas, use freshly chopped wood to prepare dry base under the fire (fig. 7-3). Wrist-sized branches break easily in extreme cold. They broke or broke several. Add another one or two layers, by placing one

Figure 7-3. Base under a fire in a snowy areaFigure 7-3. Base under a fire in a snowy area

The choice of materials for the fire

7-9. To make a fire three types of materials will be required (table 7-4).

7-10. Tinder – dry material, flammable from a small amount of sparks. Must be completely dry. If there is flint, then you may need snotsevshie pieces of matter (zhenka – prim.perev.). It will keep you from the spark. You can prepare bitch, but not letting it catch fire. Keep it dry, put in an airtight container. Prepare this piece of cloth in advance and add to the NAZ. Wiseline vaseline gauze may be suitable.

7-11. Kindling – highly flammable material tinder. Again must be completely dry to ensure fast fire.

7-12. Fuel slowly and stably after ignition.

Tinder Kindling Fuel
Ground inside bark of cedar, chestnut, red elm.
Sawdust. Dry dust. Straw.
Dry grass, fern, moss, mushrooms.
Scraping very fine wood resin.
Dry needles. Spruce roots.
Small bird feathers.
Tops of plants (euphorbia, dry rogoz, reed or thistle).
Thin dry vegetable fiber.
Spongy threads spoiled raincoat.
Dry palm leaves.
Bamboo stalks and other bamboo chips.
Threads from pockets and seams. Cotton
Zhenka. Wax paper.
Small twigs.
Small bars of wood.
Light pitch knots of pine stumps.
Thick cardboard.
Pieces of wood cut from large logs.
Wood poured with a flammable material such as gasoline, oil or wax.
Dry roots and branches.
Dry core of deadwood and large logs.
Freshly chopped wood (torches).
The dry grass crumpled in bunches.
Dry peat (can be found on the shore)
Dried animal insides.
Animal fats.
Coal, oil clay and oil products on the surface.

Table 7-4. Materials for making fire

Types of bonfire

7-13. There are several types of fire this has its own advantages. Which one to choose depends on the situation.


7-14. To decompose hut (Figure 7-5), place the tinder and a few kind of sticks in the form of cone. Set fire to the center. As the cone burns through, it’s supporting the fire. It burns well even with raw wood.

Figure 7-5. Types of bonfiresFigure 7-5. Types of bonfires


7-15. To lay out the shed (Figure 7-5), stick a fresh branch into the ground at an angle of 30 degrees. Its end is directed to the wind. Put some tinder under it. Small kindling chips lean on the stick. Set fire to tinder. As soon as it caught fire.


7-16. For cruciform campfire (Figure 7-5) dig two cross grooves in the ground about 30 cm long and 7.5 cm deep. At the intersection place a large lump of tinder. Above him, make a pyramid of kindling. Small grooves.


7-17. To build pyramid (Figure 7-5) Put two small logs on the ground in parallel. Layers of wood or branches. Add 3-4 layers, each perpendicular to the previous one. Make a fire at the top of the pyramid. He will set fire to the wood under him. It is a bonfire burn maintain fire.

7-18. There are several other types of fires that can be more effective. The choice depends on the situation and the available fuel.

Weays to make fire

7-19. Always set fire the fire downwind. Make sure fuel is tinder and kindling is enough to bonfire burned while needed. It is important to ensure that you can’t get it.

Modern methods

7-20. TO modern igniters These are those that use modern fixtures. They make fire.


7-21. Make sure that matches waterproof. Keep them with chirkash in an airtight container.

Lens (magnifying glass)

7-22. Use this method (Figure 7-6) only on a clear sunny day. Will fit lens from binoculars, cameras, telescopic sights or magnifying glasses. Point and focus it on the tinder. Hold it until it starts to smolder. Lightly blow on tinder so that he inflamed and lay it on the base of the fire.

Figure 7-6. Using a lensFigure 7-6. Using a lens

Ferrocerium rod

7-23. It remains free. Put an end to ferrocyria rod holding it in one hand and the knife in the other. Hold the knife on the rod strike sparks. Set it on fire. When it comes to smolder, inflate it as described above.

Accumulator battery

7-24. The battery is also suitable for creating a spark. It depends on the type of battery. Connect the wires to the battery terminals. This is what makes the trite smolder.


7-25. Often among the equipment may be a firearm and ammunition. So remove the bullet from the sleeve. Use powder as a tinder. Drop the cartridge case and cap. Sparks gun powder.


Be careful, as well as a small amount of gunpowder can give unexpected results.

Primitive methods

7-26. To primitive ways of making fire are those used by our distant ancestors. They can take a lot of time. Be patient and persistent.

Flint and chair

7-27. Direct receipt sparks —The most simple primitive way. Extraction of fire using flint and armchairs is one of the most reliable. It is true that there is no need for a good spark. This requires a flexible wrist and some practice. When the spark hits the tinder, blow it up. Smoldering spread on tinder

Extraction of fire by scraping

7-28. Extraction of fire by scraping (fig. 7-7) is an ignition method. Make it a straight groove at the base of the softwood (deciduous tree). While moving, small fibers are pulled out of the soft rock. Then with more pressure they start glow with heat, released by friction.

Figure 7-7. Extraction of fire by scrapingFigure 7-7. Extraction of fire by scraping

Bow and boer

7-29. It is quite simple (Figure 7-8). To make fire will need:

  • Sleeve. A piece of hardwood or stone, with a small notch on one side. To keep the rod in an upright position.
  • Boer. Direct stick from dry wood broadleaf breed with a diameter of 2 cm and a length of 25 cm. The lower end is blunt (to provide strong friction).
  • Board Any size, but recommended 10cm wide and 2.5cm thick. At one end with a recess with a diameter of 2cm. On the lower side of the groove – V-shaped notch.
  • Bow. It consists of 2.5 cm in diameter and a bowstring. The type of wood is not important. As a bowstring. Tightly, without any sagging, pull the string on the bow.

Figure 7-8. Bow and boerFigure 7-8. Bow and boer

7-30. To make fire, first build bonfire. Then place the tinder under the V-shaped notch in the board. Step on her foot. Make a loop on the bowstring, then put it on the drill. The neck of the rod has been re-routed. It is tightly pressed against the board. The rod will rotate (Figure 7-8). Not to push the sleeve too much, and then accelerate the movement. Black glowing sawdust set it on fire. Inflate the tinder until it burns.

7-31. Primitive ways to extract fire require great effort and practice. If you have methods, follow these tips:

  • Whenever possible, use non-aromatic hardened wood as fuel.
  • Collect the kindling and rub along the path.
  • Add insect repellent to tinder.
  • Keep firewood dry.
  • Sushi wet firewood campfire.
  • Surround the night.
  • If possible, have a tinder with you for kindling.
  • Extinguish the fire before leaving the camp.
  • Do not use wood lying on the ground. It may seem dry, but will not provide enough friction.

Making fire

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