For most people, the tropics are huge and mysterious. tropical jungle, the way is the most dangerous. However, lands are cultivated in some way. It will help you to improve your skills and skills. Do not be afraid of loneliness in the jungle. It reduces the number of survival in the tropics.
AT jungle all living organisms, including disease-causing microbes and parasites multiplying in an alarming progression, are rampant. Tropical nature Rich in water, food and shelter materials. Locals lived for centuries hunting and gathering. However, it will be possible to use it for local conditions and continuous activities. tropical survival.
14-1. For equatorial and subtropical regions (except highlands) are characterized by heavy rainfall and increased depressant humidity. It rarely drops below 10 ° C and often exceeds 35 ° C. The rain rises sharply.
14-2. Showers in tropics usually strong, often accompanied by thunder and lightning. Turning into the trees, sharply raising the rivers. Just suddenly the rain stops. By the end of the summer months, severe storms usually occur.
14-3. Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons arise at sea, causing tide and devastation. When choosing a camp site, make sure you are above potential floods. The prevailing winds In the dry season it rains once a day and the monsoons carry a long rain. In Southeast Asia monsoons the dry season begins.
14-4. Tropical days and nights last same amount of time. Suddenly it gets dawns suddenly.
Types of jungle
14-5. Standard jungle does not exist. Tropical areas can be any of the following forms:
- Tropical rain forests.
- Secondary jungle.
- Semi-ever green seasonal and monsoon forests.
- Tropical shrub and dwarf thorny thickets.
- Salt swamps and swamps.
- Freshwater marshes and swamps.
14-6. AT rainforests the climate is not particularly changeable. They are located in the Pacific. Every year there falls to 3.5 meters of rain in the form of rain. Temperatures range from 32 degrees during the day and up to 21 ° C at night.
14-7. In these jungle five tiers of vegetation (Fig. 14-1). In areas untouched by man, trees grow to 60 meters. Below, cannons are not seen. The seedling fights for the light. The wilds, the wild plants, and the herbal foliage.
Figure 14-1. Five Tiers of Rainforest
14-8. It doesn’t greatly help, however, dense vegetation limits can be reduced to 50m. Surviving in such a jungle It is easy to lose sight.
14-9. Secondary jungle very similar to the rainforest. They are characterized by intensive growth where the sunlight penetrates the lower tiers. This is where the jungle is cut down by humans. Dense plant mass grows rapidly in abandoned areas. Here, among such vegetation, it is possible to find edible or cultivated plants.
Semi-ever green seasonal and monsoon forests
14-10. The American and African semi-evergreen forests are very similar to monsoon forests Asian continent. They are characterized by the following:
- Trees are divided into two tiers. The upper tier is 18-24m; lower – 7-13m.
- The average diameter of tree trunks is 0.5 m.
- During the dry season
14-11. Except for palm trees: coconut and nypa.
14-12. These forests are found in parts of Colombia and Venezuela, as well as in the Amazon Valley of South America; in parts of the south-east coast of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique in Africa; Indiana islands of Asia.
Tropical shrub and dwarf thorny thickets
14-13. Key Features tropical Shrub and dwarf bush:
- In these areas, a pronounced dry season.
- During the dry season
- There are plants where plants grow in groups. Grass is rare.
- Thorny plants predominate.
- Often there are fires.
14-14. Tropical shrub and dwarf thickets the Yucatan Peninsula, in Venezuela and Brazil; in the northwest coast and in the central regions of Africa, Asia, Turkestan and India.
14-15. Being in such thickets in dry season hard to find edible plants. During rainy season – them in abundance.
14-16. General characteristics savanna –
- Located in the tropical zones of South America and Africa.
- They resemble a wide grassy meadow with rare trees.
- Often have a red soil.
- Rare trees grow, usually small and gnarled, like apples. In the savannas also grow palm trees.
14-17. Savannah can be found in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. In Africa, they are occupying the island of Togo, the most part of the Nigeria, the north of the Congo, the northern part of the Congo, and the southern part of Zimbabwe and Mozambique and western Madagascar.
Salt Marshes and Swamps
14-18. Such places are typical of coastal areas. They thrive in them mangroves. Mangrove trees reach 12m in height. Their tangled roots impede movement. It is extremely difficult. Sometimes it is possible to raft form canals. However, you will most likely have to walk through such swamps.
14-19. This is a place where the Ganges in India can be found. The Amazon and Guyana rivers consist of mud and thistles. The level of tides in such flooded areas can vary up to 12m.
14-20. In such places, it seems to be literally everything that can be crocodiles and caimans. Avoid dangerous animals in these swamps.
14-21. If possible, avoid and swamps. If you can use these channels, you can use it to get out of them.
14-22. Are located freshwater marshes in the lowlands. Characterized by extensive dwarf vegetation, reed beds, grass, Often there are separate islands. In such an area abundant fauna.
Movement in the jungle
14-23. With a certain practice, you can effectively move through dense jungle. To avoid cuts and scratches, wear long sleeves.
14-24. To simplify the movement, develop “jungle eye“It is a path to the forest floor.” lower tier of the jungle.
14-25. Wading through jungle be alert, move slowly and carefully. Periodically stop, listening and feeling the situation. To get through the dense vegetation, use machete, but you don’t get tired. Ruby creepers from bottom to top to reduce noise, because the sound is carried very far. Use the stick to move apart vegetation. It will also help remove ants spiders or snakes. Climbing the slopes, do not catch the bushes or creepers; they may have sharp spikes or irritate the skin.
14-26. Many animals in jungle moving on animal paths. Usually they are tortuous and intersect, but often lead to water or open places. Use them if they are in the right direction.
14-27. Sparsely populated areas. The slopes of such lines are usually free wide. However, when moving along, there would be a careful approach when transformers and relay stations. They can be guarded on enemy territory.
14-28. When driving through jungle or the vegetation. The following tips will help:
- To determine the overall direction of motion; In the absence of a compass, use other ways of orientation.
- Stock up on water, check out the equipment.
- But in a straight line. Avoid obstacles. On the territory of the enemy, the properties of the area.
- Move through the jungle neatly, not blindly, as you will get a lot of cuts and scratches. Unfold the shoulders, rearrange the legs, bend the body; shorten or extend through the underbrush.
14-29. Being in dense jungle the number of times of escape is much lower than in any other locality. To be safe, you will most likely have to move.
14-30. Once in a plane crash, take the most important items from the crash site: machete, a compass, a mosquito net and a shelter.
14-31. Do it shelter from tropical rain, sun and insects. Malaria mosquitoes and other insects are a direct threat to protect yourself from bites.
14-32. Clear route planning. Use the compass. Determine the direction of movement.
14-33. AT tropics even the smallest scratch can quickly fester. Immediately treat any wounds, no matter how insignificant they may seem.
14-34. Although water is in most tropical areas enough, you may have problems finding her. Water found. Palm trees and condensate. To find water, watch the animals. It is clear that water can be obtained from the water. Water will leak into it. Clean any water obtained in this way.
Animals as landmarks in search of water
14-35. Animals often lead to water. Most of them need it all the time. Herbivores, such as the deer, never go far from a watering place. Converging animal trails often lead to the reservoir. There are no problems with these conditions.
14-36. Birds also lead to water. Finches, pigeons and other birds, feeding far away from never. They drink at dawn and dusk. When they fly straight and low, they head for the water. Returning from watering place, they fly from tree to tree, often resting. Do not rely on waterfowl, they fly over long distances without stopping. Hawks, Eagles and Other Birds of Prey; they should not be used.
14-37. Insects can be a good guide, especially bees. They rarely fly farther than 6 km from their nests or hives. Usually within these limits water source. Ants also need water. Answered with dry moisture. Such tanks can be found even in arid places. This is especially true of the European fly-bricklayer. It is easily recognizable by its green iridescent color.
14-38. Human traces usually lead to a well, a well or a well with water. To prevent evaporation, they can be covered with plants or stones. Take shelter water source after use.
Water – from plants
14-39. During survival in the tropics There will be many types of vegetation depending on location. Plants, such as vines, roots and palms, are good sources of water.
14-40. Liana with coarse bark and shoots about 5 cm thick. Which vines are aquifers are empirically determined since not all water is potable. Some even have poisonous juice: when the incision is sticky milky. Not poisonous emit a clear liquid. If you are not in contact with your lips. It is the best to have a vessel. Follow the guidelines 6.
14-41. In Australia, the roots of trees such as the desert oak, water and sandalwood (pterokarpus) are located near the surface of the earth. Dig them up and cut them into 30 cm pieces. Heck it up.
14-42. Umbrella, coconut and nip – all these palm trees contain a lot of water. To get water, Blow down the bottom of the head. If you are not in the cold for any reason? Nipa it can be found at the ground level. To reach them. Coconuts contain a strong laxative. If you drink too much milk, you will lose more liquid.
Water – from condensate
14-43. It often takes too much effort to dig out that roots. It is easier to use. In case of condensate in the bag. There will be the same effect. This is the so-called “solar distiller” (Chapter 6).
14-44. For survival in the tropics food is usually abundant. To mine it, use the procedures described in chapter 8.
14-45. Animal food will have to be supplemented with edible plants. The best places – the coast of streams and rivers. Regardless of sunlight intensity jungle A lot of useful plants to find them.
14-46. If you are a There are more sources of power on the ground. Do not collect more than the required amount of food. AT tropical conditions it spoils quickly. Leave the fruit on the live plant.
14-47. The number of edible plants in tropics Almost unlimited, there is a choice. It is safer to begin with. Appendix B contains detailed descriptions of some of the most common food plants. tropical belt.
14-48. At survival in the tropics percentage of poisonous plants in tropical regions no other part of the world. However, it may appear that the plants are poisonous due to their high density. tropical areas (Appendix C).
Survival Guide for the US Army. Chapter 14: Survival in the Tropics