Survival Guide for the US Army: Water Crossings

Surfing, most likely have to overcome water barriers like rivers, streams, lakes, swamps, quicksand, quagmires or marshes. There are sudden floods that turn the obstacles into obstacles. Whatever you need to know ways of crossing.

Crossing rivers and streams

17-1. For crossings Quiet or narrow, wide or narrow, wide or quiet. Before cross the river or stream, develop a good plan.

17-2. The first step river view. From there you can choose crossing point. If there is no such point, climb a tree. Good place for crossings:

  • The plain on which the river splits into several streams. Two or three narrow creeks are usually easier to cross than a wide stream.
  • Shallow shore or sandbank. If possible, choose a point upstream if you are stumble or fall.
  • Crossing the river, Keep heading downstream to 45 degree angle.

17-3. The following locations are potentially. crossings; as far as possible avoid them:

  • Obstacles on the opposite bank, interfering with the movement. Try to choose the most safe and easy to use.
  • A mountain ledge crossing a river often shows dangerous rapids or canyons.
  • Deep / fast waterfall or deep channel. Never try cross over a small river just above such a dangerous place or even near it.
  • Rocky places can cause serious injury if slipped or fall. As a rule, pitfalls are very slippery, which makes it difficult to maintain balance. However, an occasional rock sticking out of the water can help.
  • It is usually widespread, has a fast current and is subject to tides. These tides can be affected. Go upstream to simpler crossing point.
  • Do not back thrust downstream of the obstacles causing them. They can sink under water.

17-4. Depth wading river or flow doesn’t stop when you are able to maintain balance. In fact, it is safer, and therefore it is safer than a stream. Equipment across the river.

17-5. Try to swim over or get over the stream or river. This swim can be deadly. Try to build some kind of raft. Wade through, if you only wet your feet. As soon as you reach


17-6. If necessary, you can safely cross deep and fast rivers or rapids. To cross them – go with the flow, never struggling with the flow. Try to keep in the water horizontally. This will reduce the risk of submerging.

17-7. Shouting rapids It will increase buoyancy and help steer clear of obstacles. Bruises or falling on stones.

17-8. On the deep rapids, lay your head down on your stomach, heading for the shore whenever possible. Watch for obstacles, waves, and converging currents, as they often contain dangerous whirlpools. Converging streams arise where there are small obstacles like small islands.

Figure 17-1. Go through fast flowFigure 17-1. Go through fast flow

17-9. To wade swift, insidious flow:

  1. Take off your pants and shirt to reduce the amount of water. To protect feet and ankles from stones. It will also give you a stronger footing.
  2. Tie pants and tie back into a knot. If you’re all on the gears, you’ll have to go together. It is easier to look for small items.
  3. If you need it. Fast enough can tighten under water even the strongest swimmers.
  4. Find a solid pole with a diameter of 7.5 cm and a length of 2.1-2.4 m, which will help wade the river. Take a pole and carefully move the flow. For each step, however, you can still take it. With each next step, put your foot below the pole. It makes it possible to keep it at a glance. (Fig. 17-1).
  5. Cross over to reach it downstream.

17-10. Using this method, you can safely cross streams usually too strong to stand up to one person. As the weight of the backpack crossing over the river wade

Figure 17-2. Crossing a river into several peopleFigure 17-2. Crossing a river into several people

17-11. If you are not alone cross the river. Described above. The lightest is on the upper. When you can move it up easily, whirlpool, formed first. If he falls, the others can maintain balance while he rises (Figure 17-2).

17-12. With a rope and from three people for river crossing You can use the method shown in Figure 17-3. The length of the thread should be three times the width of the thread:

  1. Forwarded a man insures a loop around his chest. The strongest goes first (1). If you can be washed away by the current.
  2. When it reaches the other shore, it is untied and tied (2). Crossing (2) controlled by others (1 and 3). In this way, you can smuggle any number of people.
  3. When it reaches the other shore, it becomes attached (3) and shipped. (1) It takes what it goes wrong.

Figure 17-3. Several people crossing the riverFigure 17-3. Several people crossing the river


17-13. If there are two ponchos, you can build a bush on it. On any of these rafts, you can fuse gear across a slowly moving river.

Bush raft

Figure 17-4. Bush raftFigure 17-4. Bush raft

17-14. When properly assembled, holds about 115 kg. To build scrub raft, fresh green shrub, two small seedlings and a rope. It is constructed as follows (Figure 17-4):

  1. It is tightly to the neck.
  2. Grommets of each poncho. Make sure you’re on the opposite corner or side.
  3. Lay one poncho on the ground with the inside facing up. It is not folded up on the poncho until it is about 45 cm. Stretch the rope through the central part.
  4. X-shaped seedlings Securely secure the frame with a poncho cord.
  5. Screw another 45 cm of frame, and then lightly touch it.
  6. Pull the neck around the corner of the bush and the bottom of the neck.
  7. Stretch the second poncho upside down near the bundle.
  8. Throw it at a bottom. The poncho.
  9. Put in water tied up at the top.

Australian poncho raft

17-15. If you want to raft, you can build Australian poncho raft. It is, though, more than 35 kg. Ponchos, two backpacks, two 1.2-m poles or branches, creepers, laces or similar material. It is built like this (Figure 17-5):

Figure 17-5. Australian poncho raftFigure 17-5. Australian poncho raft

  1. It is tightly to the neck.
  2. Lay one poncho on the ground with the inside facing up. Two poles on the poncho 45 cm apart.
  3. Put your backpacks or other equipment between the poles. Keep it dry. Gather the poncho parties together.
  4. Ask for help comrades to complete the raft. Down roll out to the equipment. Make sure you roll it up.
  5. Form. Fold the pigtails with the rods, laces or a rod.
  6. Spread the poncho on the ground inside up. If additional buoyancy, put some fresh green branches on it.
  7. Place it in the middle of the second poncho. Wrap the poncho around the outfit, the following procedure with the poncho.
  8. Tie it up raft rope or other bonding material approximately 30 cm from the ends of the braids. Lay down and secure the weapon.
  9. An empty bottle of water and a raft. This will help drag it.

Raft poncho bagel

17-16. Another type of raft is a donut poncho. But it is effective. You will need a bonding material (Figure 17-6). Done raft poncho bagel So:

Figure 17-6. Raft poncho bagelFigure 17-6. Raft poncho bagel

  1. Identify the circle and outer circle.
  2. With the help of the willow or grapevine
  3. If you want to see them securely.
  4. Tie the ties to the neck.
  5. Put it up on the ground with the inside facing up. Place the ring in the center. Wrap the ring and tie each other.
  6. An empty bottle of water and a raft. This will help drag it.

17-17. At launching It is a rainy day. Before cross the river, to make sure it floats.

17-18. If the river is too deep for overcoming ford, push the raft The body of life of the body. Your equipment is safe. crossed over the river.

17-19. Before cross the water check the temperature of the water. If the water is very cold and shallow ford across the river no, don’t try to move it. Think of others ways of crossing. For example, you can build a bridge. Or build a roomy raft for you and your equipment. However, it will take an ax, a knife, a rope / rod and a time.

Alloy raft

17-20. Can build a raft from any dry, dead or standing tree logs. However, it is better from the spruce polar and circumpolar regions. It is a raft that has been made to make it easy to use it (Figure 17-7).

Figure 17-7. Using the clamping barFigure 17-7. Using the clamping bar

Rescue equipment for the crossing

17-21. It can be used as water. overcome water obstacles. What can be used as boats:

  • Trousers. Tie each leg down and zip up your pants. With each hands, take it out. It doesn’t escape. Now you have inflatable pillows for swimming, to stay afloat while you crossing the reservoir.

Note: It is better to wet your pants before recruiting air. You may have to “pump up” overcoming a large reservoir.

PKT swimming suitPKT swimming suit

  • Empty containers. It can hold the air. Only in low-speed rivers or streams.
  • Plastic bags and ponchos. Fill two or more plastic bags with air and tie them together. Take a poncho and twist green vegetation at least 20 cm in diameter. Securely tie the ends of the bundle. Over your head over your head.
  • Logs use beach floating log or find it. Do not forget to check the log before the swim. Palm trees of some trees – for example, palm trees – will sink even when they are dry and dead. Two way logs 60 cm apart. Sit between above and below (Figure 17-8).
  • Reeds. Collect stalks of a cattail of 25 cm. Help him to stay afloat, until the stem rots. Test a bunch of cattails cross the reservoir.

Figure 17-8. Floating logsFigure 17-8. Floating logs

17-22. There are many others. boats, that can be made using imagination. For reliability, test everything before use.


17-23. Other water obstacles, that you may encounter are swamps, peat bogs, bogs or quicksand. Do not try to go through them. Trying to get caught up. Try to get around these obstacles. If this is not possible, try to reach it.

17-24. Crossing over arms and legs outstretched. Engage your craft or air-filled pockets of clothing. Swim or stretch your intersection path, moving slowly and maintaining a horizontal position.

17-25. Marshland with vegetation, most often often stable to support your weight. However, there is usually no water drainage or water in the area. If you are an average swimmer passing through kilometers of bogs or marshes.

17-26. Quicksand water forms, which forms varying masses. They are easily subject to pressure, sucking down and absorbing objects on the surface. They differ in depth and are usually localized. It is usually found on the banks of the large rivers. If you are not a stone, it will throw a small stone on it. In quicksand he drowns. Although quicksand is more suction than sludge or dirt, can be overcome them also like a quagmire. Down and down.

Plant barriers

17-27. Some water areas, who will have to overcome. However, you can swim through relatively dense vegetation, if you remain calm. Close up with the breaststroke, making short movements with your legs and arms. On the way, remove plants from yourself, as if with equipment. Chartering stay on the surface It is your choice.

Mangrove swamps

17-28. Mangrove swamps are another obstacle view, found along tropical coasts. There is a lot of fun. To overcome the mangrove Then, being on the coastal side, find a narrow grove. You can also try to find out where to go. Being on the side of the sea, move deep into the grove along the stream. Be careful while watching water crocodiles If you’re looking out for water climb the roots mangrove forest. When crossing mangrove swamps, you can get food from tree pools or tree roots.

17-29. A large swamp requires more time and effort. Therefore, it’s necessary to build some raft.

Survival Guide for the US Army. Chapter 17: Water Crossing

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