Water – one of the most important needs. It is not a stretch, especially in the heat, fluid loss through sweat happens faster. Maintains a minimum of 2 liters of water.
More than 3/4 of the human body consists of liquids, which is lost from heat, cold, stress and tension. In order to work effectively, you need to replenish lost fluid. So, your primary goal is to ensure sufficient water supply.
6-1. Almost to any extent present water. Tables 6-1 below list the possible water sources in different environments. Also see below for information. drinkable.
Note: If you have a cup, cup or other vessel, make it out. Give the plastic or fabric a bowl shape, removing the folds. Hands and hands to hold the folds.
|Cold area||Snow or ice||Melt and clean.||Do not drink without melting! Drinking snow or ice will reduce body temperature and lead to dehydration. It is located. Sea ice grayish shade is opaque and salty in taste. Do not drink without desalination. A bluish tint – contains less salt.|
|In the sea||Sea||Desalinate the water.||Do not drink sea water without desalination.|
|Rain||Collect water in a tarp or other waterproof vessel.||Less salt will remain.|
|Sea ice||See notes on cold areas.|
|Coast||The soil||Water fill it; collect stones, make fire and heat them; throw hot stones into the water; hold a piece of cloth; squeeze the water out of the fabric.||If there is any vessel, use another method: fill it with sea water; set the fire and bring the water to a boil; cover to bottle; squeeze the water out of the fabric.|
|Dew||Dig for the first group of sand dunes. This will collect fresh water.|
|Desert||Soil, rainbow and rainbow lines||Water fill it.||It was found that among the sand dunes.|
|Cacti||Sorthement of the cactus and mash or mash of the core. Caution: Do not eat the core. Put your hair on the water and spit it out.||It is a harder skin that is harder than a machete.|
|Cavities or depressions in stones||Rainwater can be accumulated in natural waters, in hollows, or seep into crevices.|
|Cracks in the rocks||Tube and pull out the water. If the crack is large enough, insert the vessel.|
|Condensate moisture on metal objects||To absorb moisture, use a piece of cloth, then squeeze it.||It can be caused by significant temperature differences. Signs of water in the desert: – All trails lead to water. Follow where they converge. Signs of the trail:
– Traces of sites, ashes from the fires, animal droppings or trampled earth.
– Flocks of birds will circle near water sources. Some birds fly to the water at dawn and dusk. At this time, they usually fly fast and low to the ground.
– Sometimes it indicates that there is water nearby.
6-2. If there are no water sources. This can help.
Note: DO NOT replace water. liquids, listed below.
|Alcohol||It leads to dehydration and obscures the mind.|
|Urine||Contains hazardous waste of the body. Contains about 2% salt.|
|Blood||It is a watery taste. May transmit diseases.|
|Sea water||Contains about 4% salt. Liter of seawater, it takes about 2 liters of fluid. So, the death of the water.|
6-3. Water can be obtained from dew. Wrap your hair around the grass. When the material is soaked dew, squeeze the water into the vessel. Repeat until you have enough water or the dew disappears. 1 liter of water per hour.
6-4. Their presence water. Remove it using a homemade scoop. You can also insert a piece of cloth into it, and then squeeze it.
6-5. Sometimes water branches of trees. For its production, the methods described above are used. In the dry areas, there can be a sign of the water droppings in or near the crevasse.
6-6. Young bamboo shoots are superb freshwater source, it is clean and odorless. To get it, tilt the green bamboo trunk, tie and cut the top (Figure 6-3). Water will drip freely from night to night. In the old cracked trunks, it can also be.
Figure 6-3. Bamboo
Attention! Disinfect water before use!
6-7. Wherever banana trees or sugar cane grow get water. Cutting out the tree, leaving it a bit higher than the ground, is formed. It will immediately begin to fill the water from the roots. It will be good, but the next will taste good. A stump (Figure 6-4) will give you water for up to 4 days. Cover it to protect it from insects.
Figure 6-4. Water extraction from banana palm stump
6-8. Some tropical wine palms also contain water. Make a hole as high as possible, then cut the vine closer to the ground. Collect dripping moisture into the vessel or immediately by mouth (Figure 6-5).
Attention! Make sure the wine is not poisonous.
Figure 6-5. Water extraction from wine palm
6-9. Milk of a young unripe coconut satisfies well thirsty. But mature brown coconut milk contains milk. Drink it only in moderation.
Attention! Do not drink it if it is sticky, milky, or has a bitter taste.
6-10. In the American rainforests, you can find large trees, aerial plants (ed.). In their dense leaves, they can hold a significant amount of rainwater. Remove dirt and dirt.
6-11. You can get water from plants with a soft, moist core. Cut the plant into small pieces moisture. Collect it in a vessel.
6-12. Water may be contained in the roots of plants. If necessary, it can be taken from the ground. Collect in a vessel.
6-13. Still water found in fleshy leaves, stems or trunks, such as bamboo. To get it, cut it out or slice the stem at the base.
6-14. The following plants are also water source:
- Palm trees. Korifa, coconut, sugar, rattan and nipa. Bend it in the bottom of the water.
- Tree travelers. This is a cup-shaped shell at the base of the leaves.
- Umbrella tree. Originally from tropical West Africa. Water is found in the bases of the leaves and in the roots.
- Baobab. Africa and Africa. After a few weeks. drought.
Attention! Do not let the liquid ooze from plants longer than 24 hours. It is saturated with fermentation enzymes and becomes dangerous.
6-15. Distiller can be used in different regions of the world. is he draws out moisture from the earth and plants. For its manufacture collecting water. It will take about 24 hours to get 0.5-1 l.
6-16. Two types can be made ground distiller. For the manufacture of vegetable distiller need slope on the sunny side. A distiller is a clean plastic bag, a leafy green vegetation and a small stone (Figure 6-6).
Figure 6-6. Herbal distiller
6-17. To make a vegetable distiller –
- Fill the bag with air, opening it to the wind, or “catching” the air with it.
- Fill with green leaves from 1/2 to 3/4 of the bag volume. Remove any hard knots or sharp spines that may pierce the bag.
Attention! Do not use poisonous plants. They give a poisonous liquid.
- Put a small stone or something similar in the bag.
- Close up of the bag and tie. If there is a small straw before it is inserted into the bag before tying it. Then it is necessary to prevent the air from escaping. She will allow drink water, without untying the bag.
- Neckline with the neck down. Place it over the bottom of the bag.
- Arrange the bag
Figure 6-7. Water evaporating bag
6-18. To extract condensate water gathered near the stone flows out. Then bind it again.
6-19. After extracting it, replace it with fresh ones.
6-20. Evaporative bag similar to the vegetable, only made even easier. It is a tight seal around the branch. Tie the branches so that they are below the hole in the bag. There will be gather water (Figure 6-7).
6-21. 3-5 days without prolonged harm to them. After removing the bag.
6-22. An assortment of mineral water, a distillate, and a stone (Figure 6-8).
Figure 6-8. Underground distiller
6-23. According to your choice of water, where does the soil contain water? rainwater). It is easy to dig in the water.
6-24. To make underground distiller –
- Digit semicircular hole with a diameter of about 1 m and a depth of 60 cm.
- Make a small recess in the center. It is the width and depth of the vessel. water. The bottom of the recess
- Knit at its end.
- Put the vessel in the recess.
- Away from the bottom of the pit.
- Covering the hole with a hole.
- Put the stone in the center of the polyethylene.
- Put the polyethylene in the pit 40 cm below ground level. It should form an inverted cone with a stone at the top. Make sure that the moisture is absorbed.
- Fix it in place and prevent moisture loss.
- Moisture doesn’t evaporate.
6-25. Using drinking straw You can drink water without touching the distiller. When opening the distiller, it will be released.
6-26. As moisture source You can use green leaves. In this case, remove the ground from the fossa and place the leaves. Next, do as described above.
6-27. If a dirty water – gutter somewhere in the water, approximately 25 cm in depth and 8 cm in width. Contaminated water will fill the gutter. Make sure that the water touches the ground where it is polyethylene. The gutter will pull the water out. Water will condense to polyethylene and drain into the vessel. The water source is salty.
6-28. To get at least three distillers. A vegetable bag produces more water than an underground distiller and evaporative bag.
Figure 6-9. Underground distiller for water purification
6-29. Rainwater, it is safe to drink. However, water from the lakes, ponds, swamps, streams or rivers should be disinfected.
6-30. Iodine or chlorine. After cleaning water jars, the cap and the cap are upside down.
6-31. Disinfect water in the following ways:
- Using tablets for water disinfection (follow the instructions).
- Add 2% drops to a full flask. If the water in the flask is cloudy or cold add 10 drops. After that, let it brew for about 30 minutes before use.
- Use 2 drops of 10% Povidone-Iodine (military power) or 1% solution of Povidone-Iodine. The civil equivalent is usually equal to 2% solution, so 10 drops are required. Let it brew for 30 minutes. If a water is cold and clean wait an hour. If icy or muddy add 4 drops and wait an hour.
- Add 2 drops of bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) to the flask with water. Let it brew for 30 minutes. If the water is a cold or muddy wait an hour. Remember that it’s not in the world; check the current sodium hypochlorite level.
- Use potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate – editor’s note). Potassium permanganate of various applications, including emergency water disinfection. Crystals of different sizes. After adding the crystals, you can determine the dosage. Add three small ones in 1 liter of water. If after 30 minutes the color turned bright pink – water is considered clean. It is not safe to drink, bust with dosage. Or add more water to dilute. And you can save it. If it turns out to be a red juice, it turns out to be a cranberry juice.
- Kipyat drinking water. This is the safest cleaning method. As you boil, you can be sure that all waterborne pathogens are destroyed.
6-32. Consuming raw (not disinfected) water, You can catch the disease or pick up fatal diseases.
6-33. The two most common pathogens found in most water sources worldwide –
- Giardia causing giardiasis (beaver fever) – explosive, watery diarrhea, accompanied by severe cramps lasting 7-14 days.
- Cryptosporidium, which causes Cryptosporidiosis, is similar to giardiasis, only more severe and prolonged. There are no known methods of treatment, except time. Diarrhea is mild and lasts from 3 days to 2 weeks.
Cryptosporidium is boiling or filtering using commercial microfilters or reverse osmosis. Chemical disinfection with iodine or chlorine did not show 100% effectiveness in eliminating Cryptosporidium.
6-34. Examples of such diseases or microbes –
- Dysentery – severe long-term diarrhea with bloody stools, fever and weakness.
- Cholera and typhoid – you can pick up these diseases despite vaccinations. Cholera causes profuse, watery diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps in the lower limbs. Symptoms of typhoid include fever, headache, loss of appetite, constipation and intestinal bleeding.
- Hepatitis A – Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, jaundice and dark urine. This infection spreads through physical contact or use. polluted water or food.
- Helminths Stagnant, dirty water, especially in tropical areas, often contains blood flukes (schistosomes). After swallowing, the worms enter the bloodstream, parasitizing and causing disease.
- Leeches. After swallowing, it sucks blood, causing wounds, and shifts to another place. Each bleeding wound can catch an infection.
Water filtration devices
6-35. If found muddy water, it can be cleaned in the following ways –
- Place in a vessel and stand for 12 hours.
- Pass through the filter.
Note: Similar actions only clear the water and make it more enjoyable. It will still have to be decontaminated.
6-36. To build water filtration system, Place the filtering material in several layers or centimeters, such as sand, crushed stone, coal sheet, or a hollow tree trunk or cloth (Figure 6-10).
Figure 6-10. Water filtration systems
6-37. Remove the bad smell by adding in water coal from the fire. Coal is also useful for absorbing some agricultural and industrial chemicals. Let it brew for 45 minutes before use.
Survival Guide for the US Army. Chapter 6: Water