Table of contents:
Survival in natural conditions. Part 1. One on one with nature
- Harvesting plant foods
- Choosing a parking space
- Overnight stay
Survival in the tropics
- Clothes and shoes
- Stay in the rainforest
- Water extraction
- Getting food
- Harmful animals of the tropics
- Tropical diseases
Survival in the hot desert
Sun and heat protection
Clothes and shoes
Harvesting plant foods
Many forest and meadow plants, usually not eaten, are edible.
It is possible to eat the fruits of oak and rowan. For several hours after frying.
Have edible leaves and young shoots:
- yasnotka white.
A lot of sorrel is harmful: oxalic acid converts blood calcium into an insoluble compound.
Have edible young leaves:
- slyt ordinary;
- black currant;
- dog rose;
- hogweed dissected;
- small-leaved linden;
- spring primrose;
- field field; dandelion;
- Meadow clover.
Have edible roots, edible raw:
- blooming sally;
- wheat grass creeping;
- the burnet is medicinal;
- meadowsweeper six-pinion;
An edible plant may have inedible relatives similar to it. If you are not familiar with a thick reference book. It is also difficult to answer how the burdock differs from the burdock. Herbaria of edible plants in quiet time. Maybe someday you eat this herbarium. This is a rather reliable sign.
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As for mushrooms, it is difficult for the body and risky food. It is not necessary to eat them. Seneca (Letters to Lutsiliyu, XCV): “If you’re not really worried?”. Especially unfavorable to the intestines and dangerous mushrooms that have not undergone heat treatment. Older, overripe mushrooms are the most harmful to health. Mushrooms intensively accumulate toxic environments from the environment. It can be used in the field of industrial waste. Some edible mushrooms (honey agaric, etc.) have poisonous twins. It is often considered edible mushrooms, which are weak-loving (for example, svinushka is thin). However, it’s not necessary to get rid of it. If there is a shortage of other foods, mushrooms are, of course, acceptable as food.
In the country with a temperate climate, they are harvested from mid-summer to mid-autumn. Growth, warm weather, wet weather. In this weather, they grow up in just a few days. It’s not a problem to make it to the ground. All mushrooms, when plucked, deteriorate quickly. Mashed mushrooms spoil soon. Therefore, you can’t make it.
Mushrooms and berries are a small crop.
Choosing a parking space
There are no options: – ant hills; – can be in strong winds; – swampy areas; – animal remains.
It is better to observe the surroundings. Schematically, this can be represented as:
Summer, above, blood-sucking. If you cant, you can’t get it? hands should be hidden in plastic bags, etc.). Must not be in contact with the body. You can wash your head with a towel on it. Expel flying insects from the tent can be smoke. Mosquitoes are annoyed not only by bites, but also by squealing. It is a risk that there is something essential for survival.
If there is no tent, you can use the hammock or camp out in the open. A hammock is needed. As a hammock, you can use a 80 x 200 cm narrow neck fabric with a narrow seam of edges and a piece of fabric. You can tear down the upper, water-saturated layer of soil. So do, for example, dogs. If you want to use it, it can make it so that you can make it out. It’s easier than keeping fire all night, trying to doze between times. It is dangerous for you to choose people. It’s not possible to say that it’s not. Leading embers under the bag.
Other ways to heat tents:
- it can be used to make it a lot of wood and dry alcohol;
- about 1.5 m long and about 10 cm in diameter; It has been found that it has been placed on it. the turf is limited to limit heat loss).
You can’t get a heating pad filled with a boiling water.
In the case of the sun o’clock in half. On the moon, you can navigate as follows. In the west, the moon and the moon in the south. It is clear that it’s safe to keep track of your bodies. summer time (another 1 hour ahead). It is the Polar Star that has been located above the North Pole. If you’re looking for what you need to do, then you’ll always be looking for it.
It is possible to determine whether it is the most overgrown moss or lichen. In fact, this feature appears only on average. It is a watering path. Similarly, it is a lot of freaks of large stones. Anthills, located near the trunks of thick trees, are located mainly on their southern side. It depends on the winds.
If you’re getting lost, you’ll get lost. If you still knew where you were. The sun moves across the sky by 15 degrees. It’s not a problem. If you find a stream of water, it has In the case of the terrain features.
Survival in the tropics
You should protect your little animals. Seal all the gaps in the house, close the windows and doors with nets. The high threshold (20..30 cm) eliminates many small visitors. It is better to make it out. Do not lay down carpets or hang up carpets. Wash the floor with soap. Do not sleep on the floor. The bed should be covered with mesh. Keep clean near the home. Bury or burn garbage. Throw feces with earth. Cut grass short. It is not a large reservoir. Pour all puddles. Any old pot in the bushes, filled with rainwater, can become a hotbed of anopheles mosquitoes.
Clothes and shoes
Lingerie and socks are desirable to change every day. To clean fungi and other microorganisms. Clothing should be made of a thick breathable fabric (cotton, linen), with long sleeves and trouser legs. It’s not a problem. There is a danger of scarabing. Trousers should be tucked into socks. It is important to keep your skin dry. Dangerous places: feet, groin, armpits, neck, and neck straps. You should glue the skin with a plaster.
It is possible to protect the neck from the necklace. Clothes and skin. You need to wear a lot of hair, a little bit less hair Do not shrink the skin, so that it can be accompanied by microtraumas, and should be shaken. It is important that you use it when you need it.
Any open vessel that is not tied and covered is covered.
Old Testament. The book “Numbers” (19:15)
Keep all foods thoroughly sealed from flies. It should be consumed immediately after preparation. It is difficult to ensure freshness for other foods. Do not trust the local kitchen. Wash fruits and vegetables. If you are still a lot of salt, continue in the tropics. Carry salt. Intensive loss.
Some drinks (cold tea) reduce the subjective sensation of thirst better than pure water. In a bar, cafe, etc. A glass bottle. Glasses are poorly washed, but in the tropics are heavier consequences. Do you need to go for a drink? Concentration of water does not sterilize. Water carbonation (saturation with carbon dioxide) does not lead to its disinfection.
Water Disinfection Methods:
- boiling for a few minutes;
- passing through a special filter (periodically rinse);
- chemical disinfection (with potassium permanganate, iodine, chloramine, hydrogen peroxide).
Brush your teeth only with boiled water. It is better to boil and water for washing. Do not bathe in natural water bodies: predators, poisonous animals, and pathogens. In the ocean, it’s a clear distance from the mouth of rivers. Preventively use medical remedies for fungi on the feet.
Stay in the rainforest
Turn on the screen. Instead of the mesh, you can use a thin nylon fabric. To detect biting insects in time, inspect clothing and skin more often. It is a long long knife for cutting plants. It is dangerous because it is a humid climate. So that it is not sterile, it must be sterile and dry. It will be necessary to make a bandage. In order to reach the wound, the bandage must be loose.
In the jungle, only 1/10 of the sunlight reaches the earth, and the constant twilight depresses of the psyche of untrained people. Walking in the dark is not recommended. It is a short time to get dark. Overnight in the forest. If you’re not on fire, you’ll not be happy. There are almost no deserted places on earth. The striker has an advantage. Therefore, if you are afraid to get attention.
For drinking, you can use the juice of vines. It should not be drunk, as it is most likely poisonous. Water can also be taken from bamboo trunks. Water-containing trunks have a yellow color that grows to 30 degrees. They can be determined by splashing with shaking.
In the rainforest can be used the following:
- bamboo shoots;
- mango fruits: yellow-green, heart-shaped, ranging in size from 6 to 12 cm, the flesh is bright orange;
- breadfruit: yellow-green, up to 40 kg in weight, pimply, located on the trunk or on large branches; powdery pulp, taste like pumpkin or potatoes; may be consumed raw;
- papaya fruit (melon tree): green and yellow, located on the trunk; It is an umbrella of palmatally dissected leaves.
Harmful animals of the tropics
The tropics are particularly annoyed, mainly by the following:
- Leches. They live in warm water, on plants, on soil. It can be applied to the skin and respiratory organs. The leech bite is painless, as there are painkillers in its saliva. It will not help you, and it will be inflammation. You can drop it yourself.
- Pliers. Tropical blood sucking mites live on plants, on the soil, in the cracks of the walls. They are carriers of many dangerous diseases. It is a mock up with a tick stuck into it and removes it from the wound.
- Tropical bugs and bugs (bed beetle, triatomid beetle, kiss bug, etc.). They drink blood and suffer diseases. Hiding in the cracks of the rodents. Go out to feed at night.
- Tsetse fly. Brown or yellow fly 1.1.4 cm long. Wings overlap over abdomen, proboscis directed forward. It feeds on blood and animals. It carries dangerous diseases (about one percent of flies are infected). Distributed in some parts of Africa. Flies on dark clothes. A brown fly species bites only moving victims. It attacks animals, but prefers humans. Live in shady places It is not moving.
Insects of sticking, splash, splash, poisoning Do not have an itchy bite Lubricate with cologne or iodine. Use repellents (scaring agents) in small quantities, especially at night. Be careful not to get repellent on your eyes or mouth. If there is a burning sensation, there is a 2% solution of baking soda, in extreme cases, with urine.
Hygiene threatens big troubles. Here are some of the most common diseases:
AMYBNA DIZENTERIYA. Signs: frequent bloody diarrhea, weakness. Infection: through raw water, dirty food and unwashed hands. In backward countries, up to 50% of the countries are carriers of dysenteric amoebas.
DRAGULAUSE. Pathogen: worm of the worm, parasitic in subcutaneous fat (usually on the legs). Worm length up to 1.5 m, width about 1 mm. Infection: when drinking water (through the skin, then under the skin). Hidden period: about a year. Symptoms of the skin on the body. Treatment: worm head pulling through the ulcer, winding on a stick. Prevention: boil drinking water. The body of water falls into the water.
Leishmaniasis. Cause: flagellated microorganism of Leishmania, which affects the skin. Vector: mosquitoes. Symptoms: fever, enlarged liver, exhaustion (with damage to internal organs), long-lasting (with skin lesions). Prevention: protection against mosquitoes.
MALARIA. The most common disease of mankind. Exciter: Plasmodium malaria microorganism (4 types are known). Peddler: Anopheles mosquito of the genus, he lifts his belly high. Source of infection: a sick person. The hidden period: 9..15 days. Signs: high temperature irregular attacks, chills, sweating, and sometimes vomiting. The duration of the attack 6..12 hours. It depends on the type of pathogen. If left untreated, death occurs (about 30% of cases) or self-healing occurs after two years. This produces a partial immunity. For individual malaria prevention medications are produced. Collective prophylaxis consists of
MARCELA FEVER. Vector: dog tick. Signs: an ulcer, chills, temperature below 40 degrees, pain in the muscles and joints. On the 4th or 5th day for 6 weeks. Death is rare.
MIAZES (skin ulcers). Caused by parasitic in human tissues. Larvae or eggs get to human skin from animal hair, sand, grass, bed, etc. Food contamination also occurs. In addition, hair, hair, wound or eyes. It is carried out through contact with the human body. The anthropophagus cordylobia fly (“cannibal”!) Lays its eggs on the sand. Hatching eggs from the larvae, for example, lying on the beach. They can be laid on the sand. It is a water spray on the floor. Some flies lay eggs in the human eye. Their larvae invade the lacrimal sac, the eyelid, or even the eyeball. You can’t go to the ground, you can’t go there. It is necessary to daily handle bedding, bedding and underwear: shake out, wash, iron. Immediately lubricate all wounds with iodine and bandage. If you get your eyes, look for a doctor.
PARAGONIMOZ. Transmitted when eating under crabs infected with the parasitic worm. You can get in the restaurant. Symptoms: appear after 6 weeks and depend on which organ (lungs, brain, genitals) hit the larvae.
SARKOPSILEZ. Disease of the toes. Source: sand flea (very similar to normal). It is a pea and dies. Manifestations: itching, pain, inflammation, ulcer. Treatment: remove with tweezers.
TROPICAL MILARIA. A common skin disease among beginners in the tropics. Signs: Many small blisters on unventilated areas of skin. Treatment: limit water intake to sweat less; powder, or zinc oxide, or boric acid.
TROPICAL LOSS (prickly heat). Signs: redness, rash, burning. Treatment: salicylic acid. Prevention: wash your skin with warm water, sweat less.
Filariasis. It is transmitted through the bites of various insects – carriers of the parasitic worm larvae. The larvae spreads through the body. Symptoms of a lesion can manifest in months or even years. Lymph nodes, and skin lesions. If it’s possible, it’s possible to reduce temperature, weakness, itching.
SHISTOSOMOZ. Called by flat worms 4..26 mm long, settled in human blood vessels. Their eggs are removed from the body through urine and feces. Infection. The main “owners” of worms are waterfowl (ducks, etc.). The birds live in the temperate zone. Signs of infection: itching and blistering, bloody diarrhea, bloody, painful urination. Prevention: thoroughly wipe the skin after being in water.
TROPICAL FUNGAL INFECTIONS. Fungi affect the feet, palms, groin, armpits, nails. Signs of skin lesions: itching, redness, blisters. Signs of nail damage: change in thickness, color, stiffness. Infection occurs when bathing (when the bathing), when using other people’s things (when it comes to the floor, carpet), when using shaking hands. To prevent infection, keep your skin clean and dry. Dry it with talcum powder or fungicide powder. To disinfect shoes with vinegar (acidic environment is unfavorable for fungi).
It is revealed that:
- They usually can not be cleaned.
- They may not appear immediately, sometimes in months, years.
- They are diverse. Self-diagnosis and self-treatment of their difficult.
- Some of them are destructive to the body.
From this you can do the following findings:
- It is better to avoid staying in the tropics altogether.
- It is better to stay away from the natural environment.
- The skin the most.
- Contact with non-decontaminated water should be avoided.
- Iodine should immediately treat any skin damage (scratch, insect bite, etc.). It is a fact that it becomes a spotty. Do not cover the wound with a plaster, as the non-ventilated wound is rotted:
Every day it is a sweetie. When you return from the tropics, continue to take it for another month. If you are a European homebody. It is possible that these diseases can be picked up in the mid-latitudes.
Sun and heat protection
A pair of light glasses, a pair of sprinkles, scorpions for making fire) If you find yourself a headdress It is necessary to use it. It is better not to neglect even a little fit. It is also recommended to use an umbrella. Do not be naked. At least one layer of clothing should not be left on the body.
It is necessary to seek protection from the wind. If you’re traditionally protected from excessive blowing. To reduce the loss of water through breathing, breathe humid air. You can make it a bandage. Do you need to heat up? Touching the sun-heated metal may cause a burn. The skin defatting will accelerate the burn. If it is thin and light.
The ultraviolet component of the sunlight kills microorganisms. You can, for example, make a bandage of the sun. Sunburn is protected from ultraviolet radiation. It should be noted that there is no need for more than 5 minutes. longer than the previous one. If you’re not ready to go for a while, you’ll get a little bit more light. A lot of sunbathing is bad. UV rays are especially harmful to skin and skin care. It is a person who is irradiated with ultraviolet light.
A moderate tan can only be tolerated. Minimal tanning seems to be beneficial for the body, especially for children, since vitamin D is synthesized. To protect your eyes from a face-shadowing headpiece. For the day and night During the day, muscular activity should be limited to a minimum. At night in the desert can be relatively cold. To protect you from the cold, you can burrow into the sand during your day. It is somewhat subjective, it feels like it’s cold. To suffer from the heat.
Heat stroke is called overheating of the body, manifested in the following symptoms: pain in the limbs, thirst, drowsiness, dizziness, eclipse of consciousness, headache, decreased sweating, nausea. Sometimes a heat stroke happens unexpectedly, sometimes through a gradual increase in symptoms. Alcohol consumption contributes to heat stroke. In case of overheating, wiping the body with a wet towel.
It is not a quest for thirst, but it shouldn’t be a problem. Drink should be in small doses. In this case, the body uses water more economically (less lose it with urine, etc.), and it lasts for a longer period. A state of “dehydration exhaustion.” Symptoms: dizziness, irritability, drowsiness, tingling in the limbs, cessation of salivation.
About drinking in reserve. It is removed from the body through the kidneys in about 2 hours. It remains in water until it’s possible to digest it (1..3 hours). But it is also a significant effect of digestive and antimicrobial action. It is caused by the fact that it has been caused by If your thirst and hunger are felt simultaneously, you must be able to quit your thirst and wait for 15 minutes.
Down to the right side. Excessive water inhalation (NaCl) from the body through urine and sweat. It is a person who wants to drink water. The body is significant, the “salt weariness” comes. Her symptoms include stomach cramps, vomiting, weakness, and occasionally seizures. The treatment consists of drinking salted water. In this case, you need to keep a small amount of salt in stock. Preventive supplementation is not recommended.
The water of the dunes, the water of the dunes The sunset of midges or mosquitoes after sunset sometimes indicates the proximity of groundwater. In the water of lakes with salt water are sometimes found. You can moisten clothes with it. Near the caravan roads. Often they are difficult to distinguish on the ground. For example, it can indicate the number of people who are bored. It shows the date of the groundwater, the date palm (in North Africa and the Middle East), the poplar leaf and the watermelon (in Central Asia).
If there is a plastic film, it can be a moisture condensation: at its edges, so that the film bends. The tip of the cone should not be installed in the pit. It is better to drink water.
It is recommended that you get fresh water. It is possible to obtain water as it can be. It is a liquid that does not go into the ground. You can try to collect the morning dew. This is a piece of plastic film. The amount of water condensed on the stones may be accumulate on the film. This is what the water flows into one place. With extreme lack of water You don’t need to become a victim.
Palm trees, palm trees, palm trees, and tulip bulbs. In case of avoidance of small portions. You can hunt snakes. Habitats of snakes can sometimes be determined by scraps of skins (“creeps” remaining after molting).
Before the start of a sandstorm, the wind usually subsides completely. A cloud appears on the horizon, which is rapidly approaching, turning into a big black cloud. Do you need to cover the bottom of the sandy wall? There are some obstacles (a large stone, etc.). It has been found that it has been possible to use it for several meters thick. It can be necessary to remain in place. Sandstorms are also possible in temperate latitudes – due to the presence of large plowed up areas.
It should be considered:
- It will not be possible to receive timely assistance from outside, even with reliable means of communication. We must rely solely on our own equipment.
- Items of equipment, vehicles, vehicles, vehicles and other products are subject to low temperatures.
- It is a natural environment.
In V. Sanin’s book “A Newcomer to Antarctica” (ch. “Laws by which the polar explorers live”) has to prepare himself for accidents. This is a continuous chain of accidents. “
“When it comes to the weather, remember that a blizzard will fly in a minute; that is the three-meter ice window; that is the ghostly bridge over the bridge. “
“Don’t forget about the moment! The reason for your possible death. Nedosushil shoes – frostbite legs. I didn’t check the radio – comrades will not know where to find you. Badly stitched a button – grab pneumonia. “
If you’re in the cold! It is a time when it was time for the cold. When you go out in the cold, it is better to wear it, then you can adapt it, loosen the “thermal protection” (unbutton, etc.). Wool socks, sweater. It helps to ensure that your body is warm.
Ways to protect against cold:
- adding clothes;
- reconfiguration of clothes (buttoning, etc.);
- change in the relative position of the body parts (squeezing fingers into fists, etc.);
- change of location (taking a place protected from the wind);
- increased movement.
It will be necessary to reduce the loss of heat. In addition, it is easier to prevent hypothermia than to eliminate it. If you are not in the cold For a state of thermal comfort. Reduce your sweat. It may be higher than dry, and after sweating, local or general hypothermia may occur. Water evaporates even when a person is cold. Through the thickness of the clothing and through the holes in it (cutouts of sleeves, etc.).
It is dangerous to get it through the hole. Clothing must be water vapor permeable. It is necessary to use it for a short time (for example, an hour). film as a ventilated cloak. It should be noted that it has been placed on the body.
For the warmth of the feet, you can in extreme cases. It is a bit dry. It will help you keep your hair clean.
It can be reduced by 1 m / s is equivalent to the temperature of 1 m / s; at minus 30 degrees – a decrease of about 2 degrees. Thus, it is very important to protect from the wind. If you’re having a lot of time, you’ll have to Frostbite appears imperceptible to touch it is lost.
An external sign of frostbite is blanching of the skin. If you are tired or distracted, you can miss the time. It is often necessary to take care of the body. It should not rub the affected areas of the body with snow. With strong winds. It is necessary to distinguish between the local frostbite and general hypothermia.
A sign of incipient freezing with a general supercooling – falling into a state of drowsiness, accompanied by pleasant visions. It is most likely that he will not be freeze to death. Therefore, it is possible that you can run up or squatting. It helps to reduce the amount of heat that is lost by the body. They can be used only in very small doses.
If you fall away, then you will die. It is a warm room. Don’t accelerate frostbite. It is a winding winding distance of mines 10 degrees. For this purpose, a gold cap is used. Protect your face from wind, snow and frost allow a respirator and motorcycle goggles. If there is no respiration through it.
Clothes and shoes
If you are wearing a pair of clothes The clothes of the Arctic – a loose jacket, worn over his head. It is easier to avoid sweating, since it regulates the heat. It doesn’t come out from under it. When moving, it is intensively ventilated.
If you are traveling by car, you can’t get it. There are no fur sleeping bags. To increase the insulating properties of the shelter (tents, barracks, etc.), you can For a long time, it’s not a problem. It is a build shelter of snow shelter. It is pulled out of snow packed in snow. Before digging the cave, it is thick enough.
From the book “Journey to the Mountains” by AA Maleinov and GK Tushinsky (ch. XV): “In the absence of deeply compacted snow drifts, one should give in neat pieces, forming a hole. Snow ‘bricks’, taken out of such a pit, are carefully laid out at its edges. Thus, the snow overhang grows up and down at the same time (…) From above, these are impro impro ‘… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
“It is worth mentioning the snow huts such as the Eskimo‘ igloo ’type. They are made of cubes of snow and snowboarding. It is an exceptionally heavy snowing and it is convenient for you. “
For the construction of the snow Thus, machetes are not only in the tropics. Illuminate the dwelling. Fill it into the emergency kit. It is possible to reach the unhealthy level. If you are not alone, you can get it. Even if it is possible to raise the temperature of 10 to 10 degrees above zero inside it doesn’t threaten.
From “Journey to the Mountains” (Ch. XV): “At the bivouac, every piece of equipment should be used wisely. If the group goes with the skid This creates an insulating gasket. Under the sleeping bag, especially for the kidneys and the lungs. “
It is better to cut food. Portions: in each package – bread, meat, lard, sugar, dried fruits at one time. It is used for the aborigines of the North. It is not necessary to dilute the kitchen: you can pour it in your mouth, even on the go. For example, it is a formula, a formula, a sugar, a crushed crackers, a raisins, a chopped dried fruit. Dried fruits (or other fiber containing product) are needed for the intestines. Meat of fish and mammals, consumed raw, can cause infection by worms. There is a chance of infection with a polar bear liver.
There is a jar of plastic bag. Eskimos bags made of walrus intestines to melt snow. Ice formed from sea water can be salty or fresh. In the first case, it has a greenish tint, in the second case – a bluish. Therefore, therefore, it is necessary to add additionally.
Snow blindness (snow ophthalmia) – eye damage caused by ultraviolet radiation reflected from sun crystals. The first sign of the sun has gotten under the eyelids. Reliable cure is darkness for 1..2 days (stay in a dark shelter or black eye patch). After treatment, there is a predisposition to the recurrence of the disease. It makes it a lot of ways to make it easier to reach the sun. If there are no dark glasses you can use to protect your eyes. The Eskimos knitted from the world. You can take, for example, a strip of holes and a needle. If there are no sunglasses, you should at least squint.
There are no aboriginal people. Depression, irritability, anxiety, and weakness increases. Causes: poverty of impressions, inactivity, overcrowding, violation of the daily rhythm. Particularly depressing factors are Every fifth polar explorer has neurosis. In order to avoid it, it’s not a problem; recall precedents; all the time; – think more about the distracted; read more if possible; – strongly if you need to; in general, shelter you need a separate room, then at least isolate the corner.
It becomes conflicted. It’s not. Divide the space into personal zones. Establish rules for the use of common property.
Alexander Buryak, editors – LastDay.Club
from the book The Art of Survival
The art of survival. Chapter 3.9.: Survival in the temperate zone, the tropics, the hot desert and …