Hiking, trekking or just camping still need clean water. Without it, you risk getting some disease and if you are far from civilization, it can take you a long time to get to a hospital. All this can claim your health and even your life. Many hikers and campers, when dehydrated, do not consider the importance of finding a way to purify their water.
Every time they find a source of water, they immediately begin to drink it. This can be extremely dangerous. It is especially true when you are dehydrated, since you do not think about dying for any organism or virus, but about dehydrating yourself. Only when you have given water to your body, do you realize that the water was dirty.
In order to avoid all these scenarios, we will give you practical methods to use when you are out and, for some reason, you have run out of clean water. You may have forgotten to carry a purification or filter system, so you will have to rely solely on the tools and methods available.
Useful methods of water purification in nature.
To begin with, for these methods to work, I would still need to have some elements at hand, and we will explain them in detail and how to actually use them.
Your first method, which is also the easiest of all, is boiling. Boiling water is known as a decent method to purify water. It is a very old method and it is still reliable until today. I would need a durable water container (a metal can or other cooking utensils) and a gas stove. There are small portable and very light gas stoves made specifically for hikers and campers who do not want to carry too much cargo.
If you do not have a gas stove, of course you can light a fire. This may take more time and require some skills to start the fire. Be sure to gather old, dry branches and foliage (leaves) for the base. If you have a lighter or matches, light up the foliage and blow gently over the burning branches. If you do not have matches or a lighter, you will have to use some old methods to start the shot. One of them is to take a medium-sized branch (old and dry) and cut a notch in it.
Then, place another thinner branch in the notch and begin to spin the thinnest branch quickly and energetically. If you do it correctly at some point, smoke will start to come out of the base of the notch. Place the dried foliage (or cotton balls if you have it, as they burn extremely well and quickly) in the notch. Be careful not to and # 8216; suffocate ‘the initial fire, as it is still fragile and weak. You need to feed it little by little.
Now that you have lit the fire, you can finally boil the water. Of course, without the container you will not be able to do that, so be sure to carry a metal container in your backpack.
It is necessary to boil the water at least 5 to 10 minutes. Keep in mind that the higher your situation (in elevation), the longer you will need to boil the water. The reason for this is that the atmospheric pressure becomes weaker and weaker as it moves above sea level. This means that the water begins to boil at temperatures below 100 ° C, which also means that you will have to maintain the boiling process for longer to achieve the same results at sea level.
Another practical method to purify water without any modern invention is to use soil or sand. It may sound absurdly easy, but it works. It is known that the soil purifies and extracts any virus or organism from the water, leaving it clean and ready to drink.
So this is how to do it. Get a cloth or shirt and place it over the water container. This is where you will spill the water. When you have placed the cloth, now put a little soil (or sand) on the cloth, just above the opening of the container. Now start pouring water. Make sure the water passes through the ground (or sand) to filter it. If you think that once was not enough, you can repeat the procedure one more time. Try to keep your containers (bottles) clean, so you do not have to worry about impurities.
Another similar method, but slower is that of dig a hole in the damp ground and wait for the water to accumulate in the hole. This may take a long time to happen, but it is still a reliable and work method.
On top of that, you can collect rainwater. It is naturally distilled and clean, so you will not be worried about any viruses or microorganisms. Of course, if you are walking or camping in a relatively dry climate, you should not rely on rain. Try to find other sources of water.
Another useful method, which is as old as boiling water, is solar distillation. This method requires some time to build the system, and then a little more time to wait for the water to accumulate. However, it is a method that you should definitely remember.
First of all you have to dig a hole. Do it deep enough so that you can put your water container in it. In addition, the upper edge of the container must be below the edge of the hole. Later you will see why.
Now put some fresh leaves and foliage at the base of the hole. Place the water container in the center of the hole. Take a little sheet or plastic cover and try to extend it through the hole, so that it covers completely.
Place some heavy stones in the four corners of the plastic sheet. This will make a mini greenhouse effect. Now that you have done this until now, take a small stone and place it just above the opening of the container. It should not be too heavy, but you should stretch the plastic sheet so that it has a protuberance that accumulates drops of water. As a result, the drops will gradually fill up in the container.
This method requires patience but it works without a doubt. Water not only evaporates from vegetation and foliage, but also the earth always contains some moisture and water that accumulates in the form of water vapor and then falls into the container. This method resembles the method in which he could only dig a hole and wait for water to accumulate, but in this method he forces the water to accumulate faster and directly in his bottle or container.
A variant of this method is to use a large bowl (if you have it on hand), place a metal cup at the bottom of the bowl; Then pour the dirty water into the container. Again, cover the container with a little plastic sheet (other covers can also work, but not the fabrics, as they absorb water). Place the heavy object or stone on the sheet just above the cup, and wait for the water to evaporate and then begin to drip into the cup. This method may be preferred if you have a reliable source of water and can have immediate access to water.
Another practical method, used by hikers and hikers, is to expose the water to the strong rays of the sun. These machines are called UV purifiers. Just dip it in the water bottle and wait for it to perform its miracles. The principle behind this is that the UV rays Eliminates bacteria and viruses and leaves the water clean. It may not eliminate other impurities, but the greatest danger is eliminated.
Several more basic but useful water purification methods.
Well, you may not have a tool of this type when you are in nature, so you will have to rely solely on the magic of the sun. Fill a plastic bottle (or glass) with water and expose it to a sunny place. The sun must be really strong (like at the summit of summer) for this to work. The higher the sun is in the sky, the stronger the UV rays are. When touching the water bottle it must be hot. Then you know that the water is ready to drink.
You need to know some things about this method. It works only for a while. The fact is that UV rays damage the DNA of pathogens and are deactivated and, therefore, harmless. But, the longer they are exposed to the sun, the greater the chance that they will develop some resistance against this damage and reactivate again. Therefore, you should drink the water immediately after exposure to the sun. Repeat this process with new water.
A very useful trick is to get two containers, one with a higher background than the other. The other must be placed lower. You can simply place the second container on a flat stone or some other object, to raise the container slightly. Then place the dirty water in the upper container.
Take a shirt or other garment and tear a small piece of it, along. It must be something long, but thin in width. Then place one end of the cloth in the dirty water. Move the lower container next to the one with the dirty water. Place the second end of the fabric in the empty container.
Basically, the broken fabric will act as a conveyor of water from one container to another. This works from the moment the fabric is soaked until all its fibers are soaked and, finally, the water reaches the edge of the water container and begins to fall to the vacuum, thanks to gravity. Eventually, the water will end clean, leaving all the impurities, particles, organisms and microbes in the first container. All of them will reach the hardest surface of the fabric and stick to it, while the water will continue to move along the fabric.
In case the water stops accumulating, this means that either the fabric does not reach deep enough into the water, or that the fabric is too clogged. You can clean it or you can use another cloth from the same piece of clothing you used initially.
Here is another proven and working method to clean and purify water. You can use urine or salt water for this method. And do not worry, you do not have to drink it. In fact, you’ll boil it. Is that how it works.
Take two metal containers. Place the urine or salt water in container no 1. Container 2 must be empty (and, hopefully, clean). Then, container No 1 should be placed slightly above (in elevation) of the second container. Place the caps in both containers. Drill the holes next to the containers and place a metal tube that connects the two holes. They should be made near the openings of the containers, since the steam will accumulate in the upper parts of the containers.
As container No 1 is placed lightly on the second container, the water that evaporates will slide immediately into the second container. Basically, you will have distilled water, leaving all the impurities, salt and other elements in the first container. Of course, you must place it on the source of fire or heat for this method to work.
Another very primitive method of collecting water is to take a plastic bag and cover it with a tree branch. You must make sure that the plastic bag wraps the branch easily and at the same time it is tight. Close the opening of the plastic bag with a string or thick thread so that the water remains in the bag. As trees contain a lot of water and moisture, this method will create a greenhouse effect.
Of course, you will have to wait a long time to have a significant amount of water, but even a few sips can save lives. Then, consider this method when there is absolutely no other source of water around you.
A good method to filter water is the method of using soil or sand. It develops further in a system itself. Therefore, take a durable plastic bag. The thin and fragile ones will not work. Place on the bottom of coal. Above them, place a layer of soil / sand, then a layer of small rock, and then another layer of soil / sand. You need to vary the layers.
Then, on top of all this, pour the dirty water. All the layers of sand, rocks and charcoals will filter it. Make a small hole in the bottom of the plastic bag so that clean water can come out through it. If you do not have a plastic bag, as funny as it sounds, using a condom will actually be very useful, as it can stretch to a considerable size and be retained. However, be careful when placing some sharper rocks, since they can puncture the condom and all its configuration will have been in vain.
Therefore, be sure to place another (clean) container under this system, to collect the filtered water.
Of course, we must point out that some very simple methods also work, such as the use of iodine tincture or potassium permanganate. The only problem is that you have to pack them in advance. Otherwise, if you filter the water using the earlier primitive methods, you may want to add a little iodine tincture to make sure the water is absolutely safe to drink.
You can also use a few drops of chlorine. You need a certain concentration of sodium hypochlorite – 5.25 per bottle of water. Do not drink it immediately. Wait at least 1 hour. This is applicable for almost all chemical methods of water treatment. The minimum amount of waiting time is 30 minutes (when iodine is used). After all, you are using chemical solutions to purify your water and certainly kill the bacteria, which means that it can also be harmful to humans, even in such small amounts.
If you use potassium permanganate, you must take certain signs into account. Follow the package instructions, but remember: after 30 minutes since you dropped the crystals, the water should turn pink. If so, you are ready to drink. If the water is dark pink, the concentration is higher than what would be considered safe, so it is better to put a little more water to dilute it. If it’s red, do not drink it.
As long as you follow the advice above, you must be sure. We still advise you to practice these methods at home or in your backyard, or to bring some chemical solutions to stay on the safe side. The safest and preferred method is still boiling. It is easy to set up and relatively fast (10 minutes of boiling water). Of course, the less wet and humid the area is and the fewer water sources there are around it, the harder it will be to find and purify the water. Therefore, plan your trekking / hiking area and consider the risks.