## Symbols on a topographic map of the area: the main types

Symbols of the map or plan are a kind of their alphabet, according to which they can be read, learn the nature of the terrain, the presence of…

## Determination of directions on land, the use of paper topographic maps in the campaign, preparing maps, orienting maps on the ground.

A feature of determining directions on a topographic map is the presence of a coordinate grid on it, the vertical axes of which do not coincide with the…

## Topographic maps, determining the rectangular coordinates of a point on a topographic map.

Topographic maps are most interesting for tourists, especially large-scale ones. The basis of topographic maps is the geometric concept of the Earth’s surface zone formed by two meridians…

## Marine nautical charts, determining directions and locations in marine navigation.

Navigation in large expanses of sea put forward two special requirements for the Mercatorial projection of a nautical chart. Enormous sea distances in the ocean the ship passes…

## How to determine the height of terrain points from a topographic map, their mutual visibility, the number of firewood, how many cubic meters of forest grows on a hectare and how much water is in the river.

The topographic map of the heights of points above sea level (absolute heights) is determined using horizontal marks. If the point is located horizontally, then the task is…

## How to determine the scale of a topographic map, measure the distance from it, determine the area, determine the slope of the slopes.

Using a topographic map, you can solve a lot of practical problems without going to the area. From the topographic map you can determine: the scale of this…

## Handbook of military topography, topographic and special maps, measurements on the map and terrain, orientation on the ground.

and aerial photographs. It sets out methods for orienting on the ground, the procedure for compiling combat graphic documents. Samples of topographic maps, symbols and abbreviations used on…

## The determination on the map of the standing point on the terrain is eye-catching according to landmarks, measuring distances, measured distance and direction, and reverse notch.

The determination of the standing point on the map is carried out eyeballing according to the nearest landmarks, measuring distances, measured distance and direction, and backsection. When choosing…

## Target designation on the map and on the ground, on the squares of the coordinate and geographical grid, from the landmark, by the azimuthal index.

Target designation is a short, understandable and fairly accurate indication of the location of targets and various points on the map and directly on the ground. Target designation…

## Documents of aerial photographing, terms of processing materials for aerial photographing and compilation of photo documents.

Based on the materials of air photography, photo documents are compiled, as well as reconnaissance reports and maps with reconnaissance data. The main photo documents include aerial photographs…