## Classification and purpose of topographic maps of various scales, city plans and special maps.

A geographical map of various scales is a reduced generalized image of the earth’s surface on a plane, built in a certain cartographic projection. According to the content,…

## Measurement of distances and determination of areas by topographic map, numerical, linear and transverse scale.

To measure distances using a topographic map, use a numerical, linear or transverse scale. Distances between points on a topographic map are usually measured by a compass gauge…

## Flat rectangular coordinates, how to determine flat rectangular coordinates from a topographic map.

The lines of parallels and meridians, which serve as the frame for this sheet of paper topographic map, are curved lines, although their curvature within one sheet is…

## Geographic coordinates, latitude and longitude, how to determine geographic coordinates from a topographic map.

There are many different coordinate systems. All of them serve to determine the position of points on the earth’s surface. These include mainly geographical coordinates, flat rectangular and…

## Bonding sheets of paper topographic maps, selection, order of trimming and gluing of individual sheets of topographic maps.

Very often, areas of operations may extend beyond the boundaries of a single sheet of a topographic map. In these cases, a working topographic map may consist of…

## Officer’s card, work with the map, drawing the situation on a topographic map. Textbook.

about the enemy, obtained in various ways and means, which are concentrated by the commander and are reflected on the map using conventional tactical signs. They usually include:…

## Comparison of a paper topographic map with the terrain, finding on the map an image of an object observed on the ground.

One of the elements of orientation on a paper topographic map is its comparison with the area. To compare a topographic map with a locality means to find…

## Orienteering on a topographic map in motion by car or motorcycle, preparing a map, selecting and moving around landmarks.

Orientation using a topographic map in motion comes down to finding landmarks depicted on the map along the route of movement. However, focusing on driving a car has…

## Determination of the point of their location on the terrain by map, local objects, landmarks on the eye, distance measurement, notch by landmarks.

An important element of orientation on the terrain by a topographic map is the determination of the point of its location. Various methods may be used for this….

## Official and commercial electronic maps for GPS-navigators, the choice of electronic maps, the use of raster maps.

Official maps in electronic or paper form are created by the national authorities of the Topographic or Hydrographic Services authorized by the government. These services are responsible for…