Target designation is a short, understandable and fairly accurate indication of the location of targets and various points on the map and directly on the ground. Target designation on the map is made on the squares of the coordinate (kilometer) or geographical grid, from the landmark, rectangular or geographical coordinates.
Target designation on the map and on the ground, by the squares of the coordinate and geographical grid, from the landmark, by the azimuthal pointer.
Targeting by the grid squares.
The square in which the object is located is indicated by signatures of kilometer lines. First, digitization of the lower horizontal line of the square is given, and then the left vertical line. In a written document, the square is indicated in brackets after the name of the object, for example, height. 206.3 (4698). When giving an oral report, first indicate the square, and then the name of the object: “A square is forty six ninety eight, a height of two hundred six and three”.
To clarify the location of the object, the square is mentally divided into 9 parts, which are indicated by numbers. A figure specifying the position of the object inside the square is added to the designation of the square, for example, an observation post (46006). In some cases, the location of the object in the square is specified in parts indicated by letters, for example, a barn (4498A).
On a map covering a region stretching from south to north or from east to west for more than 100 km, digitization of kilometer lines in double digits may be repeated. To avoid ambiguity in the position of the object, the square should be denoted not by four, but by six digits (three-digit abscissa and three-digit ordinate), for example, the settlement of Lgov (844300).
Targeting on a map from a landmark.
With this target designation method, the object is first called, then the distance and direction to it from a clearly visible landmark and the square in which the landmark is located, for example, a command post – 2 km south of Lgov (4400).
Geographic grid targeting.
The method is used when there is no coordinate (kilometer) grid on the maps. In this case, the squares (more precisely, the trapezoid) of the geographic grid are indicated by geographic coordinates. First indicate the latitude of the lower side of the square where the point is located, and then the longitude of the left side of the square, for example: “Erino (21 ° 20&# 8242 ;, 80 ° 00). Geographic grid squares can also be indicated by digitizing the nearest exits of kilometer lines, if they are shown on the sides of the map frame, for example: Dreams (6412).
This is the most accurate way. Used to indicate the location of point targets. The target is indicated by full or abbreviated coordinates.
Targeting by geographical coordinates.
It is used relatively rarely. When using maps without kilometer grids to accurately indicate the location of individual remote objects. The object is designated by geographical coordinates: latitude and longitude.
Targeting on the ground.
They are carried out in various ways: a reference point, from the direction of movement, along the azimuthal index, etc. The target designation method is chosen in accordance with the specific situation, so that it provides the fastest target search.
Targeting the terrain from a landmark.
On the battlefield, well-defined landmarks are preselected and assigned numbers or conditional names to them. Landmarks are numbered from right to left and along the lines from oneself towards the enemy. The location, type, number (name) of each landmark should be well known to the issuing and receiving target designation. When specifying a goal, they call the nearest landmark, the angle between the landmark and the goal in thousandths and the distance in meters from the landmark or position: “The second landmark, thirty to the right, one hundred below – in the bushes a machine gun”.
Subtle goals indicate successively – at first they call a clearly visible object, and then from this object the goal: “The fourth landmark, twenty to the right – the arable land angle, two hundred further – a bush, to the left – a tank in the trench.” In visual aerial reconnaissance, a target from a landmark is indicated in meters along the sides of the horizon. “Landmark twelfth, south 200, east 300 – six gun battery”.
Target designation in the area from the direction of movement.
Indicate the distance in meters, first in the direction of movement, and then from the direction of movement to the target: “Directly 500, to the right 200 — BM PTURS”.
Target designation in the area according to the azimuth pointer (tower goniometer).
The angle of the aim is combined with the target and, after reading the installation of the azimuthal pointer, they report the direction to the target, its name and range: “35-00 – tank at the edge, 800”.
Targeting the terrain by pointing the gun at the target.
The method is used when the giver and receiver of the target designation are nearby, such as a sleeve. In this case, the gun is sent to the target and indicate the name of the target and the distance to it in meters.
Target designation on the ground with tracer bullets (shells) and signal missiles.
To indicate goals in this way, landmarks, the order and length of the bursts (color beam) are set in advance, and to receive goals, an observer is assigned with the task of observing the indicated area and reporting the appearance of signals.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.