After a forced landing or splashdown, the pilot has to solve a number of urgent tasks:
Overcoming negative emotional states caused by an emergency.
First aid for victims.
Protection against the adverse effects of environmental factors.
Supply of water and food.
Locating Your Location.
Organization of signaling and communication.
Actions of the pilot in an autonomous existence after a forced landing or splashdown, protection from adverse environmental factors.
It is known that in emergency situations, 75–87% of people often experience states of anxiety, fear, affective excitement or inhibition caused by real or apparent danger, unknown environment, the expectation of death, suffering, pain. And only 12-25% of people, having maintained their composure, quickly assess the current situation, act decisively and reasonably.
emergency situations, the ability to suppress fear in oneself, to mobilize one’s will are the most important elements of pilot survival.
First aid for victims of emergency landing or splashdown.
In the conditions of autonomous existence, especially after an emergency leaving the aircraft, a wide variety of injuries, fractures, bruises, burns, poisoning are possible. Therefore, knowledge of the methods of self and mutual assistance is extremely necessary, since you have to rely only on yourself. When providing assistance to victims, a strict sequence of actions must be observed..
First of all, an immediate threat to human life should be eliminated. The victim must be removed from the affected area (from fire, from under the wreckage of the plane, from a snow floe, etc.) and help with vital signs: give artificial respiration and indirect heart massage, stop bleeding. Only after this can we proceed to systematic medical actions:
Inject pain medication.
Clean the wound.
Apply an aseptic dressing.
Immobilize broken limbs using improvised means.
Warm and calm the victim.
Protection against the adverse effects of environmental factors after a forced landing or splashdown.
Survival instructions recommend that pilots, after a forced landing or splashdown, remain in place until help arrives. In this case, the crew will be able to conserve power for a long time and use the fuselage of the aircraft as a temporary refuge. In addition, the crash site is always easier to detect from the air..
The decision to leave the emergency landing site is made only in case of an immediate threat to life (forest fire, ice field rupture, flood, etc.), the proximity of a dwelling or road, absence of communication and assistance for three days.
Protection from the adverse effects of environmental factors after a forced landing or splashdown in the Arctic.
In the Arctic, the most important problem of autonomous existence is protection against the effects of low temperatures on the body. A certain role in solving this problem is played by clothing. There is a direct correlation of the time during which the human body maintains thermal comfort, on the value of the ambient temperature and the heat-insulating properties of clothes.
For example, a person dressed in flying overalls at a temperature of –5 degrees will experience a state of thermal comfort for no more than 30 minutes. The same time for the onset of cold discomfort will be at a temperature of –30 degrees if the pilot is dressed in woolen underwear and a cotton jacket. Construction of a temporary shelter is of utmost importance to preserve heat..
The best building material is snow. It is easy to process and has good heat-insulating properties due to the high (up to 90%) air content. The temperature in snow shelters is usually 15–20 degrees higher than the outside. To insulate the snow hut inside and outside using parachute fabric.
Without the use of heating at an ambient temperature of –25 degrees to –45 degrees and a wind speed of 3–10 m / s, the permissible time for a person to stay in a fur summer outfit that additionally uses a parachute for heat protection, an emergency MLAS boat and snow shelter is 5-7 days.
In order to prevent cold dehydration and salt metabolism disorders, it is necessary to consume water and 0.5 g / day sodium bicarbonate. The source of water can be tundra streams, fresh ice, heavy snow. You can get water by placing a flask stuffed with snow under outer clothing.
Protection from the adverse effects of environmental factors after a forced landing or flooding in the desert.
The main task for a person in the desert is to prevent overheating. To do this, it is necessary to reduce the flow of exogenous heat and the heat production of the body, to increase heat transfer. For this purpose, a sun shelter should be built, physical activity should be limited, and existing water supplies should be used rationally..
It is known that almost 70% of heat comes from direct solar radiation, so a simple sunshade reduces its influx by 72–114 kcal / h. In addition, the tent relieves a person of the intake of 100 kcal / h, which he would receive due to conduction of heat from the heated sand. Any physical work during the daytime hours should be kept to a minimum and performed during cool evening, night or morning hours..
It is impractical to remove clothing, as it prevents the drying effect of hot air and protects from direct and reflected sunlight. Water is recommended to drink 80-100 ml per reception. With water losses not exceeding 3-5 liters, there is no need for a special water-salt regime. Despite the increase in losses of chlorides with sweat, they are not recommended to be taken additionally, since this can increase cell dehydration and potassium, and increase the likelihood of
For the production of water, the available in the NA Sunflower capacitor, representing a thin polyethylene film with a hydrophobic coating. It covers a pit with a diameter of about 1 meter, a depth of 50-60 cm. The rays of the sun, penetrating through a transparent membrane, absorb moisture from the soil, which condenses on the inner surface of the film, and then flows down into the catchment. Such a device allows you to collect up to 1.5 liters of water per day.
Protection from the adverse effects of environmental factors after a forced landing or splashdown in the mountains.
The adverse effects of forced landing or splashdown in the mountains are associated with the likelihood of developing acute mountain pathology and the resulting need for descent to lower altitudes. Crossing in the mountains is associated with the risk of falling into rockfall, snow avalanches, landslides, mudflows, difficulty in orienting and maintaining the route.
First of all, careful preparation is needed, assessing the quality of camping equipment, the availability of the necessary food supplies, cargo weight, and taking into account own forces. The optimal weight of the load should not exceed one third of body weight. During the transition, the speed of movement should be low, since the reduced partial oxygen pressure, steep slopes and the carried load contribute to the rapid development of fatigue.
Every 40–45 minutes of movement, a 10–15-minute halt should be made, during which you need to unload the muscles of the body (preferably lying down). If during the movement of severe shortness of breath and palpitations of more than 120 beats / min, you should stop for 2-3 minutes, catch your breath without removing the load. Much attention should be paid to the condition of the legs and shoes, as well as the choice of place for a temporary camp.
Rescue and survival after forced splashdown.
Salvation and survival after forced splashdowns depend on the availability of rescue equipment. These funds provide a long stay of a person afloat and isolate from water. Inflatable awnings on life rafts protect the pilot from wind, precipitation, water spray and solar radiation, and allow them to maintain a higher temperature than outside.
At low latitudes, the tent prevents overheating of the human body, delays the timing of dehydration and desalination. High-altitude marine rescue kit consists of separate suits (waterproof, heat-shielding, ventilating, high-altitude-compensating), a helmet, pressure gloves and pressure boots. Its buoyancy is ensured by a swimming gate, which is mounted on the back of a waterproof suit and is filled with carbon dioxide from a cylinder fixed there.
Providing food and water after a forced landing or splashdown.
The caloric content of the food supply of NAZ (3400–4000 kcal) allows you to reimburse only a small part of the energy expenditure of the body. However, the presence of a stock of products in NAZ is of great psychological importance. The pilot has no fear of starving to death, and even this insignificant supply of food allows a person to save a long life.
A pilot who finds himself in an autonomous existence, first of all, must take into account all the available products and distribute them into portions with a calorie content of approximately 500 kcal. It is not difficult to calculate, knowing that the energy value of 1 g of fat is 9.3 kcal, and 1 g of carbohydrates and proteins is 4.1 kcal. It is known that a person can manage for two or more weeks with a diet whose energy value is 500 kcal / day. It is recommended to use the food ration only for lack of opportunities to replenish your stocks of hunting, fishing and the collection of wild berries and plants.
In conditions of partial starvation, it is very important to regularly consume fresh water, since otherwise the body will compensate for the deficiency of fluid due to metabolic water resulting from the oxidation of fats. Water reserves in NAZ are insignificant (up to 3 liters). Therefore, it is imperative to find a source of water, to effectively use the means of its production (solar capacitors and distillers, chemical desalination plants).
It is imperative to purify and disinfect water from low-flowing bodies of water (pantocide, aquacid, iodine), to ensure a mode of operation that would minimize the heat load on the body. It is not recommended to use sea (ocean) water, urine, desert brine.
Orienteering after a forced landing or splashdown.
Orientation of relevance begins with the definition of the countries of the world. In the absence of a compass use the sun, stars, plants. The direction to the north in the Northern Hemisphere is determined by turning the back to the Sun at noon. A shadow cast back by the body, like an arrow, points north. In this case, the west will be on the left hand, and the east – on the right. In the Southern Hemisphere, by contrast, a shadow will point south..
At night in the Northern Hemisphere they are guided by the Polar Star and Ursa Major, and in the Southern Hemisphere – by the constellation Southern Cross. After determining the countries of the world, the pilot is obliged to find out his location as accurately as possible. To do this, he can use information about the route, flight duration, time of landing or leaving the aircraft, characteristic landmarks seen in the air.
Establishing communication and distress alert after emergency touchdown or splashdown.
To establish communication immediately after landing or splashdown, and within 10-12 minutes at the beginning of each hour of the first day three times a distress message is transmitted (SOS signal, callsign of the person in distress and its coordinates). The rest of the time the station should be in the “receive” position. In addition to radio stations, beacons, a variety of pyrotechnic means (smoke, lights, rockets), signal cartridges, a signal mirror, bonfires, and parachute fabric are used for signaling..
Based on materials from the book Physiological Foundations of Human Life under Extreme Conditions.
V. S. Novikov, S. I. Soroko.