The actions of the victims of the disaster in the taiga, the construction of temporary shelters, the production of fire, a fire.

The small AN-2 had a short, well-known way in the taiga from the village of Kerbo to the point where the pilot V. Agafonov had more than once delivered hunters and geologists. But this time the unexpected happened. The radio transmitter refused, and having lost orientation, the pilot went astray. 

Disaster response in the taiga, construction of temporary shelters, fire production, bonfire.

Quickly empty tanks. When the gas meter showed that the fuel was running out, I had to go to an emergency landing. They managed to land safely on a small meadow surrounded by tall pines. It was the end of October. Already colder. But the plane did not have any warm clothes, no fur boots, and no emergency stock. Going along the usual route, the pilot somehow did not think about them. Day after day they passed in futile expectation, and help did not appear: the AN-2 went far away from the route, the area of ​​which was searched fruitlessly for search aircraft. Two weeks passed, and then Agafonov and his partner A. Novokreschenov decided to go on the road in the hope of meeting hunters or finding the winter hut.

Snow fell, and the crew without skis managed to pass no more than three kilometers per day. The forces quickly melted. But finally, they were lucky. They stumbled upon a hunting hut. On the shelf found some food and matches. Having rested for four days, they built skis from the boards and set off again. When the forces were completely running out, a shot rang out. These were hunters. Almost a month, the pilots stayed in the winter taiga without warm clothes, almost without food, but courage and friendly support helped them overcome all the difficulties of this campaign (Voshchin, Korobko, 1969).

There are many cases when people, having gone to the taiga, but not having enough experience, unfamiliar with local conditions, easily go astray and, having lost their orientation, find themselves in distress. But often a person, lost in the taiga, finds himself in the grip of fear and bewilderment. How should a person behave when he gets lost in a forest? Having lost orientation, he should immediately stop moving and try to restore it with a compass or using various natural signs.

If this is not possible, the best thing you can do is organize a temporary parking lot, build a shelter from improvised materials, make a fire, replenish food supplies from the nature pantry and wait for help to come. Having made such a decision, it is necessary to find a suitable site for the future camp. Choosing the right place will help to avoid many unnecessary inconveniences in the future. First of all, it must be dry. Although it is not easy to find such a site, especially in mossy forests, where the ground is covered with a continuous carpet of sphagnum, greedily absorbing water (500 parts of water per 1 part of dry matter). The time spent searching will pay off with interest.

You don’t have to dry wet clothes and shoes every now and then, and shiver from damp dampness at night. It is best located near a stream or rivulet, in an open place, so that you always have a supply of water on hand. In addition, a cool breeze, constantly blowing at night, will be better protection against attack by hordes of midges than repellents and smoke bonfires. A temporary shelter can be a canopy, hut, dugout. The choice of type of shelter will depend on skill, ability, hard work and, of course, the physical condition of people, since there is no shortage of building material. However, the harsher the weather, the safer and warmer the home should be..

For the convenience of accommodation, each member of the group should have approximately 1.5 square meters of space. Starting construction, the necessary amount of materials should be prepared in advance. Of course, all construction work will be greatly simplified if there is an ax among the property. However, this mundane item in the hands of an inexperienced person can cause serious injury. That is why, when working with an ax, it is necessary to adhere to some mandatory rules. First of all, check how securely the ax blade is attached to the handle.

If it dangles, slides it must be fixed with a wedge-shaped spacer made of solid wood. The handle of the ax must not have cracks, otherwise it may break off during cutting. The ax should be well ground. Dumb ax when using requires the use of greater force, and thereby reduces the accuracy of blows. Having chosen a suitable tree, you need to remove the lower branches and clean the foot of the trunk from shrubs and tall grass. Then, in a comfortable position, so that both legs have a strong emphasis, the first notch is made at a height of 30 to 40 cm from the ground on the side to which the tree will fall (best from the side of the natural slope).

Having deepened the notch to half the thickness of the trunk, they inflict several blows from the opposite side, slightly higher than the notch made. If the handle of the ax is short, it is necessary to chop, kneeling down. Having finished work, the blade should be thoroughly wiped with a rag and stuck in a dry deck or stump. It is not recommended to use a freshly cut tree for this purpose. It is necessary to carry an ax in a case and be sure so that its blade looks away from the body. This will prevent injury if a person falls unexpectedly..

Construction of temporary shelters in the taiga.

In the warm season, you can limit yourself to the construction of a simple canopy. Two one and a half meter thick hand-sized stakes with forks at the end are driven into the ground at a distance of 2.0 to 2.5 meters from each other. A thick pole bearing a beam is laid on the forks. 4 to 5 poles are leaning against it at an angle of 45–60 degrees and fixed with a rope or flexible twigs. Three to four rafter poles are tied to them in parallel with the ground. On the rafters, starting from the bottom, tile-like, i.e. so that each subsequent layer covers the underlying one to about half, the spruce branches, branches with dense foliage or bark are laid. From lapnik or dry moss make a litter.

A canopy is dug with a shallow groove so that water does not flow in it in case of rain (see figure). A gable hut is more convenient for housing. It is built according to the same rules, but poles in this case are laid on both sides of the load-bearing beam. The front of the hut serves as an entrance, and the back is covered with one or two poles and braided with lapnik. Before embarking on the construction, the necessary materials are prepared in the required amount of branches, beams, spruce branches, bark, etc. To obtain pieces of the bark of the required size, deep vertical cuts (to the wood) are made on the larch trunk at a distance of 0.5 0.6 meters apart. Then, from above and below, these strips are cut with large teeth of 10 12 centimeters across and carefully tear off the bark with an ax or knife.

or lighters, you can use one of the methods that have long been known to mankind prior to their invention. If you have any kind of hard rock at hand, it can be used as flint, the ax of a hatchet or machete knife, a piece of steel will serve as a flint. Fire is cut out by sliding flint strokes on the flint, holding them as close to the tinder as possible with shredded dry leaves or dried moss, cotton wool, etc..

A civilized person is very skeptical about getting fire by friction. Nevertheless, this method, with the exact observance of the relevant rules, always promises success. For this purpose, a bow, drill and support are made. Bow from the meter-long trunk of a young birch or hazel with a thickness of 2 3 cm and a piece of rope as a bowstring. Drill of 25 30 cm pine sticks thick in pencil, pointed at one end. Support from dry logs of hardwood (birch, oak, etc.).

The support is cleaned of bark and a hole is drilled with a knife with a depth of 1.5 cm. The drill, wrapped once with a bowstring, is inserted with a sharp end into the hole around which the tinder is laid. Then, holding the drill with the palm of your left hand, the right hand quickly move the bow back and forth perpendicular to the drill. In order not to damage the palm, a gasket from a piece of cloth, bark of a tree or a glove is put between it and the drill. As soon as the tinder fades, it must be inflated and put in the kindling prepared in advance.

On a cloudless day, fire can be obtained using incendiary glass by focusing the sun’s rays on a piece of paper or cotton wool. Incendiary glass can serve as the lens of the camera, glasses, binoculars. You can make a lens from two watch glasses, if you fold them with the convex side outward and fill the space between them with water, gloss over the edges with clay.

Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.
V.G. Volovich.

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