Extreme situations in nature pose a serious danger to human life and health. In an autonomous existence alone with nature can be an individual or a group of people. Extreme situations that turn into a forced autonomous existence can be caused by natural disasters, situations associated with a loss of orientation in space, separation from the group. The death or damage of the vehicle. The behavior of a person left to himself in extreme conditions, the purpose of which is to preserve his life, is survival.
The autonomous existence of man in nature, voluntary and forced, the causes of an emergency, what is survival.
Survival based only on the biological laws of self-preservation is short-lived. It is characterized by rapidly developing mental disorders and hysterical behavioral reactions. The desire to survive must be conscious and focused, and should not be dictated by instinct, but by conscious necessity.
situation. Since the situation of a person who finds himself face to face with the natural environment usually occurs unexpectedly and involuntarily. And outside help is problematic.
The autonomous existence of man in nature. This is an independent independent existence of it in natural conditions. The results of such a person’s stay in nature depend on his ability to provide his vital needs for food, water, heat for some time without outside help. Using only available reserves or gifts of nature.
What is a dangerous or extreme situation?.
A dangerous or extreme situation is called a situation that threatens life, human health. His property or natural environment. It can occur suddenly and require decisive action in the first seconds or minutes. The faster you make a decision, navigate in this situation and choose the right method of action, the more chances there are to stay alive, healthy and unscathed.
Emergencies can have various causes. For example, with a forced change in their usual place of residence or work, and hence the climate. Scientists call this a change in climatic and geographical conditions. People find themselves in conditions unusual for their body and psyche. Changes in atmospheric pressure, air humidity, daylight hours, day and night temperatures, the level of salts and minerals in water and food. Therefore, in a new place will have to acclimatize.
Acclimatization and re-acclimatization.
Acclimatization is a process of gradual adaptation of the human body to new climatic and geographical conditions. Each acclimatization is based on the development of an organism of adaptive reactions aimed at maintaining normal functioning in these conditions. The more climatic conditions differ from each other, the more difficult and longer the acclimatization takes place. Violation of the rules of acclimatization just creates the prerequisite for an emergency.
After a temporary stay in an appropriate climatogeographic environment, a person has to re-adapt to previously familiar living conditions. This process is called re-acclimatization. The profession of a person, a change in the thermal regime, a change in time zones can affect re-acclimatization.
The human body responds to the effects of various stimuli with a nonspecific protective reaction by stress. Aimed at maintaining homeostasis constancy of the internal environment. In the conditions of autonomous existence, these changes in the functional activity of organs and systems are gradually increasing. But to a certain extent remain reversible. This period is called the maximum permissible period of autonomous existence..
Causes of extreme situations in nature.
The best way to avoid a dangerous situation is to learn to anticipate and prevent it. If, nevertheless, you find yourself in an extreme situation, then the favorable outcome of autonomous existence will depend on many reasons. The causes of extreme situations in nature often become oversights committed by man. Poor equipment, inadequate supply of food and drinking water, poor psychological preparation. An insufficient level of quality such as stamina.
A person in an autonomous existence is adversely affected by various environmental factors. Temperature and humidity, poisonous snakes, predatory animals, etc. They are often extreme. They also cause a violation of the functional activity of the body, putting it on the brink of disaster.
What is the autonomous existence of man in nature, voluntary and forced autonomous existence.
The autonomous existence of man in nature is the existence of a person or a group of people who, by chance, find themselves in an extreme situation, face to face with nature. The autonomous existence of man in nature can be of two types: voluntary and forced.
Voluntary autonomy this is a situation when a person or a group of people of his own free will, for a certain purpose, for a certain time switches to independent existence in natural conditions.
Forced Autonomy this is a situation when a person accidentally, due to circumstances beyond his control, finds himself in a natural environment and is forced to independently provide for his life needs in order to survive and return to people.
A person can fall into the conditions of forced autonomy if he is lost in the forest, mountains, behind the group on the route. Accident on any vehicle and other unforeseen circumstances.
In the case of an autonomous existence in natural conditions (voluntary or forced), a person must have high spiritual and physical qualities in order to preserve his life and health. To be able to act in various climatic conditions. Why it is necessary to rationally take advantage of all that is at hand and provides the natural environment.
Human activity in the conditions of voluntary autonomy is aimed at fulfilling the goal. And in conditions of a forced return to their social environment, to people, a habitual way of life.
Planned voluntary autonomy of man in nature.
Voluntary autonomy is a planned and prepared exit by a person or group of people in natural conditions for a specific purpose. The goals may be different. Outdoor activities, the study of human abilities to stay in natural conditions independently, sports achievements and others.
Voluntary human autonomy in natural conditions is always preceded by serious comprehensive training, taking into account the goal. The study of the features of the natural environment, the selection and preparation of necessary equipment and, most importantly, the physical and psychological preparation for the upcoming tests. The most accessible and widespread type of voluntary autonomy is active tourism..
Active tourism is characterized by the fact that tourists travel along the route due to their own physical efforts and carry all the cargo with them, including food and equipment. The main goal of this type of tourism is outdoor activities in nature, restoration and promotion of health. Voluntary autonomous human existence in natural conditions can have other, more complex goals: cognitive, research and sports.
Forced autonomous existence of man in nature, the main reasons.
The forced autonomous existence of man in nature is a particularly difficult situation of life. It may include a group of people, a group of tourists, an airplane crew, an expedition, etc., or an individual who has lost his way and has come off the group. Autonomous existence in nature, for whatever reason, it seriously affects a person.
Thus, the satisfaction of even the most ordinary needs in an unpopulated area, for example, in food and water, sometimes turns into an insoluble problem. In this case, a person’s life depends not only on education, professional skills, material wealth, but more often on another. The presence or absence of water bodies, edible plants, animals. And also on air temperature, solar radiation and wind power. But most importantly, a lot depends on how a person perceives this situation. How prepared he is to meet her, he is hardy and able.
Identify the main reasons leading a person to a forced autonomous existence in natural conditions.
1. Natural emergencies. These are natural disasters, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, forest fires.
2. Extreme situations in the environment:
a) A sharp change in environmental conditions. Sharp cooling, downpour, blizzard, snowstorm, heavy snow, frost, drought, etc..
b) Loss of orientation on the terrain during a walk, hike, expedition.
c) Loss of a group on the route during a walk, hike, expedition.
Emergency situations in the environment include:
Accidents or accidents in air and rail.
Accidents in sea and river transport.
Accidents and vehicle breakdowns.
An emergency usually occurs suddenly. Its development cannot always be predicted in advance. In connection with this circumstance, the procedure in such situations depends on the specific situation. A person, finding himself in an autonomous existence in nature, must solve the numerous and complex problems associated with his survival.
This situation leaves a certain imprint on the state and behavior of a person. He falls into conditions for which he did not specially prepare, his life and health depend only on himself.
The safety of a person in these conditions completely depends on his spiritual and physical qualities. His general preparation for staying in the natural environment and the ability to mobilize all his knowledge, life experience and skills to achieve a single goal: to survive and reach people in a familiar environment for humans.
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Artyshko S. V.