The basics of first aid in emergency and emergency situations.

When providing first aid to people who are in an emergency or extreme situation that has led to serious injuries, first of all, you need to make sure that you have a pulse, turn it on your stomach and clean your mouth, apply a tourniquet when bleeding, apply a bandage on the wound, apply a splint in case of fractures. 

The basics of first aid in emergency and emergency situations.

When providing first aid, it is categorically unacceptable:

, think over a way to help, decide what will be required in this particular situation if there is a first aid kit. In severe cases (arterial bleeding, unconsciousness, suffocation), first aid must be provided immediately, but in such a way that the rush does not affect the quality of this help.

When assessing the general condition of the victim, if he is conscious, the first questions to him can determine the safety and clarity of his consciousness. The so-called stunnedness, when a person is having difficulty making contact, is drowsy and listless, and loss of consciousness are terrible symptoms.

Signs of serious injury or danger are.

Sharp pallor.
Gray color of the skin.
Slowed breathing rate (less than 15 per minute) or faster (more than 30 per minute).
Lack of heart rate, weak or rapid heart rate (less than 40 and more than 120 beats per minute).

Upon examination, it is necessary to carefully examine and feel the victim’s head, trunk, limbs, comparing the right and left sides. It is easier to identify wounds, the danger of blood loss, bone fractures, bruises. It is more difficult to identify injuries to the pelvis, spine, chest and abdomen. In the presence of consciousness, the victim often himself points to the site of the injury, feeling pain there. In an extreme situation, when deciding on some form of assistance or transportation, and especially, with a limited or even complete lack of medication, it is better to overestimate the risk of injury than to underestimate it.

Basics of providing first medical first aid to a wounded or injured person.

Most often, first aid begins with the complete or partial removal of clothing and shoes from the victim. In this case, in order to avoid possible complications and causing additional injury, the following rules must be observed.

Clothing should be removed starting from the healthy side of the body.
If the clothes are stuck to the wound, then the tissue should not be torn off, but you need to cut it around the wound.
With severe bleeding, clothes should be quickly cut lengthwise and, deploying, clear the wound site.
In severe injuries of the leg or foot (where there is a suspicion of a fracture), shoes should be cut along the seam of the back (if there is a knife), and then removed, releasing, first of all, the heel. Do not forget to lace up your shoes!

In the absence of a knife or any other cutting tool, clothing and shoes are removed even more carefully, having previously unfastened all buttons, zippers and other types of cuffs.
When removing clothes and shoes from an injured limb (arms or legs) of the victim, an assistant is needed who will carefully support this limb.
Undressing the victim completely without any special need, especially in the cold season, is undesirable. In such cases, only the injured part of the body is released..

It is best for this, with a cutting tool, to cut through the window so that after applying the dressing and stopping the bleeding, you can lower the sash of clothes and close the exposed part of the body.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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