So, we get energy and calories from food. Our body also takes building materials from food, from which new cells are formed, hormones are synthesized, and so on. In our body, food undergoes complex biochemical transformations.
The chemical composition and calorie content of food in a camping trip, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Under the influence of gastric juice, food decomposes into simple components. Some of them are absorbed into the blood through the walls of the stomach, another part is absorbed after processing by intestinal microorganisms, the third is not absorbed and is removed into the external environment. Food components that enter the blood, entering the cells, are partially oxidized and release energy, and partly go to the formation of cellular structures or are processed into fat and reserved.
season, and in permafrost and summer, a lot of heat is spent on maintaining body temperature. Therefore, increased fat consumption. Accordingly, their share in the balanced diet also increases. The optimal ratio in this case takes the form 1: 2: 3, and in complex campaigns – 1: 3: 4. In the mountains, as you know, there is not enough oxygen in the air and other factors act that require adaptation of the body. In particular, the composition of blood changes in the mountains. Therefore, the body needs more protein and less fat. Tourism practice recognizes the optimal ratio of 1: 0.7: 4 for the Caucasus and 1: 0.7: 5 for hiking in the mountains of Central Asia at altitudes of more than 4000 meters.
The same ratio is accepted for hiking in regions with a hot climate, for example, in the valleys of Central Asia and in the desert. Of course, it is necessary to observe the optimal ratio not in every daily diet, but on average, for several days. In difficult trips, where the loads and climatic conditions change from day to day, the body’s consumption of certain substances also changes. Harder work, higher in the mountains, hotter weather – more carbohydrates. And on days off or when cooling, you can diversify the menu with fatty foods.
In a word, some deviations from the recommended ratio are permissible and even necessary. Recommended ratio based on average. Neither fatigue, nor mood, nor the fitness of the group are taken into account. In addition, it is designed for balanced diets, where daily energy costs are offset by the calorie content of foods. Unfortunately, in the available literature there is no data on the optimal ratio of components for fasting diets. Therefore, the search for the optimal solution lies with the group manager. And here he will have to call for help experience, intuition and even talent.
And what will happen if you deviate from the recommended ratios? Gross errors within a few days will reduce the performance of the group. Try to do without oil or fat in the winter, and on the second or third day there will be dissatisfaction with food, even if there is a lot of it. On the contrary, excess fat in the mountains will cause an aversion to food and, possibly, light poisoning with an upset digestion.
Excessive protein, such as the abuse of milk or egg powder, is also dangerous on the route. Another problem is that with a significant excess of one of the components, the excess is not absorbed and disappears without benefit. Accordingly, the effective calorie content of food decreases, and with it, the IDB decreases. Knowing the optimal ratio of components and the mass of products, you can calculate the calorie content of the diet.
So, for hiking, the calorie content of the diet weighing 100 g, taking into account that the products contain about 30% of non-digestible substances, will be about 350 kcal per 100 g. The calorie content of the winter diet with a component ratio of 1: 3: 4 will not exceed 450 kcal per 100 g The calorific value of the high-altitude diet for difficult trips barely reaches 320 kcal per 100 g. That is why even a diet of 1 kg cannot compensate for the energy consumption in a complex trip.
Based on materials from the book Camping Food.