Crossing a river on a raft is the most ancient and often the safest and fastest way to overcome water barriers. However, the construction of a raft in the context of the struggle for survival is a very tedious work that requires a lot of time. Especially if there is no appropriate tool and help.
The construction of a raft of logs and improvised materials, crossing a river on a raft, overcoming rapids or rivers with a fast current.
Rafts can be made from dead trees, bamboo or shrubs. It is best to make rafts from fir trees. A raft can be built without nails and ropes if you have an ax ax. Remember that for three people the raft should be at least 3.6 meters long and 1.8 meters wide.
Build a raft on two trigger logs set obliquely to the shore. Flap the log with the rest so that the rest of the logs that the raft will consist of lie flat on them. Cut two offset grooves on both sides of each log at both ends. The grooves are made triangular, wide at the base.
Log raft construction.
To fasten the raft logs, pass through each groove a trihedral cross-beam, the length of which is approximately 30 cm longer than the width of the raft. Raft logs connect first on one side, then on the other.
Fasten (tie) the protruding ends of the two crossbars at each end of the raft to provide additional strength. When the raft enters the water, the cross-pieces swell, connecting the logs firmly together. If the cross-members sit too loose in the grooves, they must be wedged with thin pieces of dry wood. They swell when wet, and thereby secure the cross-members.
Even with an ax, this type of work requires skill and a lot of time. A simpler and faster way is to use squeezing beams that bind at both ends and hold raft logs..
Raft construction using squeezing beams.
A good durable raft can be made from bamboo. Bamboo is lightweight, resilient and easy to cut. It is easy to make an excellent raft of tarpaulin, a small tent panel or other waterproof material by constructing a frame of shrub branches.
In the northern regions in winter, the middle of the river may not freeze due to the fast flow. You can cross such a river on an ice floe, using it as a raft, first breaking off the ice with an ax or even a pole (if there is a crack in the ice) from coastal ice. The size of such a raft should be approximately 2&# 215; 3 meters. A pole is used to move across the open part of the river..
Crossing a raft across a river at a bend.
It is advisable to cross the raft through a deep and fast river at a bend, using the force of the current and tying the raft at an angle like a kite. This method is used when several people are transported. In doing so, the following should be considered:
The raft must be tied at an angle to the current.
The length of the rope from the place of its fastening should be 7-8 times greater than the width of the river.
The rope should be attached to the raft in such a way as to be able to adjust its length and change the angle of attachment of the raft so that, if necessary, you can return to the first shore.
Overcoming rapids or fast flowing rivers.
Crossing the river in places of rapids or rapid currents is not as difficult as it might seem. On small rapids, lie on your back so that your legs are pointing downstream, your body is horizontal, hands on your hips. Move with your hands like a seal working with its flippers.
On deep rapids, swim on your stomach, trying to land on the beach when possible. Watch out for places where the streams converge. You can be dragged into the dangerous whirlpools that they form..
Based on the book SURVIVAL (Survival).
Koleda S.I., Drachev P.N..