Survival conditions on water are probably worse than in any other environment, and make the most ruthless demands on a shipwreck. Aircraft and ships have life-saving equipment, but in rough seas it can be difficult even to just get into a boat.
The decision to leave the ship in a shipwreck. The actions of the crew and passengers.
The emergency supply of food and water someday runs out, and their possible sources in the sea are unreliable. Therefore, it is necessary to use any opportunities for obtaining food from the sea and collecting drinking water in order to maintain supplies as long as possible. Not all fish are edible, and some are even dangerous to pick up. Even when you get to the coast, you can finally face the danger of landing if the coast is difficult in this regard, so pay attention to the relevant tips to reduce the risk.
states, even under ordinary conditions, are easily excitable, exhibit increased irritability, are always dissatisfied with something, often expressing this in a harsh form. Calculations based on the analysis of many accidents and disasters in a variety of situations and on different modes of transport show that the probability of salvation during an organized exit from the accident zone, catastrophe or natural disaster, and in particular, leaving the ship in distress, is higher than panic at 4 -47 times, depending on the type of rescue equipment.
Large modern ships have a fairly high speed, so a collision with an iceberg, another vessel or landing aground can lead to major damage (holes) to the hull, a sharp tilt of the vessel and even breaking it in half. This is especially dangerous at night when panic among passengers is even more likely at night. In order to avoid a panic fear of the unknown, each passenger should not only study the instructions for behavior during the disaster, but also familiarize themselves with the location of rescue boats, especially those indicated in each specific instruction in his cabin, that is, those near which he must be on alarm.
It’s best to even go this route several times from your cabin to the rescue craft and remember it well, since navigating during a disaster, especially at night, is not easy. The decision to leave the ship in a shipwreck is made by the captain, therefore:
Landing in boats or life rafts is carried out only on command from the bridge.
First of all, places are provided for women, children, the wounded, the elderly and the disabled.
You are allowed to take only documents, matches or a lighter, money, personal medicines, a blanket with you. It is forbidden to take all other items and personal belongings to the rescue craft. Captain is the last to leave the ship..
The basis of these strict ethical rules is expediency, confirmed by all the catastrophes that occurred at sea.
Shipwreck crew actions.
Without fuss and nervousness, launch boats or drop rafts and stretch a tench.
If possible, load blankets in addition to the existing emergency kit, food and drinking water, an emergency radio station.
Following the order, without fuss and panic to take on board only the number of people that this craft can withstand.
Help all injured during loading.
After the rescue tool is fully loaded, cut the tench.
Lower floating anchor.
Try to collect all the debris floating around the vessel, which may be useful in the future (wooden containers, life belts, etc.). But do not overload their craft.
Establish communication with other boats.
Close the inlets of the liferaft if it is cold or the sea is very stormy.
Inflate the bottom of the raft.
Check for leaks, but on the inflatable raft and air leaks.
To scoop out all the outboard water that has got into the craft.
Check that the equipment is secured in order to avoid losses when tipping over on a steep wave or in a gust of wind.
Set the watchman.
Prepare for use all individual life-saving appliances, everyone must always be in life jackets.
The first day to give drinking water only to the wounded and sick.
Actions of ship passengers in a shipwreck.
Wear more clothing if possible..
Wear a life jacket correctly.
Do not jump overboard unless absolutely necessary and try to board the rescue craft dry.
If necessary, jump overboard, this should be done from a height of not more than 5 meters, covering the nose and mouth with one hand and holding the vest tightly with the other.
If splashed in water, sail only to the nearest watercraft.
Remember that in cold water with each movement there is an increased loss of heat by the body and before you get to the boat or raft, irreversible hypothermia of the body may occur..
If possible, it is advisable to take pills for motion sickness..
Stay close together to keep warm. In cold climates do motor exercises to avoid hypothermia. If wet, it is advisable (if possible) to change into dry clothes.
After the last passenger and crew member left the ship and the boats or liferafts were at a safe distance from the ship in distress, the following two basic rules take effect.
Boats or rafts stay close to each other.
Do not leave the ship’s death area if there is no firm belief that it is possible to reach the coast or access the busy sea route (it is especially important to observe this condition if the ship crashed on a busy sea route). This will help faster detection of rescue craft.
The collapse of various watercraft.
When rafting on rivers in boats or rafts (especially improvised ones), injuries often occur associated with the specifics of movement along rivers, especially mountain ones, or rivers with serious rifts, rapids, and weirs. Especially often, injury occurs with poor experience managing a boat or raft, on an unknown river and in the absence of its description and map. The turning of a boat or raft or their severe mechanical damage occurs during the passage of thresholds and impact on a stone protruding or hidden under water. The crew of a boat or raft is in a river with a rapid current and a large number of stones.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.