All energy processes in the human body are carried out as a result of the combustion of fats and carbohydrates. And only with very high physical exertion or with a lack of carbohydrates and fats in the diet, the body begins to use proteins for energy purposes. The main purpose of proteins in another.
The effect of fats, carbohydrates and proteins on energy processes in the human body, the main sources of fats, carbohydrates and proteins among foods.
Proteins are the main component of tissues, they are used by the body to build the basic structural elements of cells. Protein molecules are formed from a large number of different amino acids. A certain sequence of their connection and determines the diversity of animal and vegetable proteins.
Conventionally, proteins are divided into “complete” and “inferior”. The former are found in dairy and animal products, and the latter in plants. The main sources of proteins are:
Cereals and Beans.
It is good to know that only milk proteins contain all the necessary amino acids. Followed by:
Meat and fish – 95%.
Potato – 80%.
Oats and rye bread – 75%.
Rice – 58%.
Peas – 55%.
Wheat – 50%.
Scientists have established the optimal physiological norms of the protein necessary for a rational, balanced diet. Due to proteins, it is necessary to provide 14-16% of the total calorie content of food. Of these, 60% should be milk, meat or fish proteins..
The effect of fats on energy processes in the human body.
Fats are necessary for the body to normalize metabolic processes. They are divided into animal and vegetable. Animal fats are found in meat, lard, butter and ghee, cream, sour cream, etc. Vegetable fats are sunflower, corn, olive, and cottonseed oils. Eat vegetable fat and nuts.
All fats are made up of glycerol and fatty acids. Animal fats contain saturated fatty acids, have a high melting point and are less easily absorbed than vegetable fats. It must be remembered that fish fat melts at a lower temperature, and there are more unsaturated fatty acids in it than in vegetable oils.
This is due to the fact that fish live in cold waters, saturated fats in such conditions would have a solid consistency. Vegetable fats with a low melting point are digested faster and better..
The most valuable animal fats are those found in cream, butter, and other dairy products. Calorie content of fats is more than 2 times higher than that of carbohydrates. Today it has been established that obesity is promoted primarily not by fats, but by carbohydrates, if their consumption is uncontrolled.
Fat enhances oxidative processes in the body. And the inclusion of the optimal amount in the diet does not lead to obesity. Without fats, the body cannot normally absorb calcium, magnesium, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, etc. Animal fats should be 60–70% in the diet, and vegetable fats should be 30–40%..
The effect of carbohydrates on energy processes in the human body.
Carbohydrates are an important source of energy. It is carbohydrates that usually make up 60–70% of the daily diet. Carbohydrates are mainly found in plant foods. Of the animal products, milk is the most carbohydrate-rich. Almost exclusively carbohydrates are honey. Pure carbohydrates – sugar and starch – are obtained as a result of industrial processing.
All carbohydrates are conditionally divided into three groups:
Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides) that contain one molecule of carbohydrates. It’s glucose, fructose galactose.
Disaccharides. which contain two carbohydrate molecules. These are sucrose (cane and beet sugar) and maltose (malt sugar).
Polysaccharides that consist of several monosaccharides. This is starch, glycogen, fiber.
A sufficient amount of starch is found in foods such as bread, pasta, cereals and flour (70-80%), potatoes (20%). Together with fruits, vegetables and sugar, we get carbohydrates such as sucrose, glucose and fructose. Especially necessary for the body are glucose and glycogen, which are the main sources of energy for it..
It is these substances that are used by the body for emotional arousal and intense muscular work. The long overuse of easily digestible carbohydrates such as sugar, honey, preserves and confectionery is very detrimental to the body..