The first actions after an accident or disaster, an assessment of the situation, evacuation, arrangement and waiting for rescuers.

The first thing a person in trouble should do after an accident or disaster is to try to calm down and appraise the situation soundly. Numerous accidents show that very often the greatest threat to victims is not the incident itself, but its immediate and long-term consequences, programmed by the wrong actions of the victims themselves. 

The first actions after an accident or catastrophe, assessment of the situation, evacuation, arrangement and waiting for rescuers.

Even the quickest, but thoughtless actions and actions after an accident or disaster can not only not alleviate, but also aggravate the situation. For example, people caught in a flood and miraculously got out of the snow, with fuss and noise can cause an even greater avalanche. A stampede from a hot fire can cause injuries and, as a result, a decrease in physical activity.

, which will protect the victims from wind, snow, precipitation, spray of the surf, in the desert from direct solar radiation and other adverse factors. In emergency conditions, hypothermia, as well as overheating of the body, can develop with a rapid increase.

If you do not protect the people in need from the effects of adverse climatic factors in time, then after 30 to 40 minutes, you may have to deal with the consequences of hypothermia or overheating (frostbite, general hypothermia, heat, sunstroke), which will require significant labor costs and time. In addition, it may happen that belated help will not save people. It is especially important to protect the weakened members of the group, the wounded, children, women from the weather. A mistake is very common when strong, strong, well-equipped men, underestimating the climatic dangers, recall too late people who need their help and care. That is why, I repeat once again, the first thing that people who have left the danger zone should do is to build the simplest wind-snow-sun shelter, regardless of the subjective assessment of the weather.

In cold, windy weather, along with temporary, you need to start the construction of a capital shelter such as a cave, igloo, house. The easiest and fastest way to build a windproof canopy wall. Why stretch a piece of plastic film, cloth, in a pinch, a sleeping bag or a blanket between two skis, deeply stuck in snow or soil at an angle of 45 to 70 degrees to the ground, with ski poles or poles. From three to five or more sticks, you can make a canopy of triangular shape, directed at an acute angle to the wind. Such a shelter better resists the wind and is warmer in it. In case of a gale, the canopy becomes lower, and the racks are fixed with the help of two or three guy ropes attached to them. So that the wind does not lift the fabric, its lower edge can be pressed with stones, backpacks or, just turning the edge, put people on it.

You can fix the canopy more firmly by piercing its lower edge in several places with the tip of a ski pole or with a pointed pole with a knot protruding to the side. A ski stick ring or a protruding knot will firmly press the bottom edge of the canopy to the ground. Accordingly, the upper edge of the material is tied to the lanyard of a ski pole or pole of the pole. The guy rods are fixed on the ground with the help of pegs, stones driven into the ground or tied to the branches of bushes collected in a bunch of grass. In the desert, a sunshade canopy is constructed from any light opaque material stretched between the bushes or above a natural recess in the ground.

Tent guyings are tied to bushes or to sand anchors. Buried in sand to a depth of several tens of centimeters, bags, socks or pieces of clothing, densely packed with soil. The next step is people in trouble visiting and, as they say in the army, dressing clothes. At that moment when the accident occurred, the most important task for victims is to preserve the heat resources of their organisms in cold weather and inland water supplies in hot weather. Therefore, the absurd at first glance recommendation to put in order your appearance is dictated by cruel necessity. If the clothes are badly damaged, they must be replaced or repaired quickly without any delay, using any materials at hand. Threads, wire, thin rope, fabric, glue, resin scraped from coniferous tree trunks.

In this case, the leader must personally verify that each person in the group was provided with warm clothing equally. The equipment of the leader should not differ (at least for the better) from the equipment of the other victims, otherwise he will not be able to really assess the state of people. In cold weather, it is necessary to carefully tuck the clothes in a stormy fashion: fasten all zippers, cuffs, collars and any other holes through which cold air can reach the body; close the pockets so that snow doesn’t get there, put on, tighten the hood. Wrap the neck with a scarf or, in extreme cases, try replacing it with spare pants, a towel or another, possibly woolen, cloth. Be sure to wear dry mittens. If they are absent, pull on your hands spare wool socks or cut off sweaters, jacket sleeves.

If there is a lack of warm clothes, but there is free material (sleeping bags, pieces of tents, etc.), you should wrap his body under a storm jacket. It is advisable to protect your face from frost and strong wind with a scarf or makeshift mask made of a piece of any dense material, in extreme cases even cardboard. At subzero temperatures, all of the above actions should be mandatory even in the case of apparent thermal comfort. Care must be taken to protect as much of the body area as possible from exposure to cold air and wind. Heating open and blown parts of the body requires additional energy, and therefore additional food calories, which can not be restored in emergency conditions. By keeping internal warmth, a person primarily saves food supplies.

Of course, when doing heavy physical work, it is better to remove excess clothing temporarily. Particular attention should be paid to warming and snow protection of the legs. In the place where the accident occurred, a thorough search should be made. It is necessary to collect the lost equipment and random items that may come in handy in an emergency. Collect all things in one place and sort. Arrange unnecessary items in a place that is clearly visible from air and ground. Other property to pack in backpacks or put in a safe, easily accessible place where it can not be destroyed by avalanches, rockfalls, surf, tides, predatory animals.

All things, clothing, equipment and other personal property, up to personal hygiene items, in an emergency are transferred to the category of the public domain and are used according to the needs of the group, and not the wishes of the owners. They should be transferred to the head, even if it seems that in an emergency they cannot be useful. The seeming futility of a thing is most often erroneous. Any pocket trifle in a critical situation can find application and even play a decisive role in saving people. All food, and in the desert water, salvaged foods, as well as sweets, chocolate, crackers lying in pockets, are gathered in one backpack for their further redistribution and targeted use. All collected products form an untouchable food supply..

Items, equipment and products are assigned personally to each member of the emergency group. Their unauthorized use should be strictly prohibited! In the coming hours after an accident or catastrophe, you should determine what tactics adhere to disaster surviving active or passive survival. All further actions of the group depend on the decision. In any case, survival should not take elemental forms dictated by the diverse desires of the saved. Of course, the recommendations given here are very sketchy and cannot claim absolute versatility..

Each accident is unique in its own way. Each has its own characteristics, differences, development logic. The most described priority actions scheme is applicable in emergency situations of catastrophic scale. Earthquakes, floods, mudflows, landslides, hurricanes, fires, avalanches, collective vehicle accidents, group emergencies and other cases. When a whole group of people find themselves in a critical situation and when an accident develops rapidly.

Based on the book The Great Encyclopedia of Survival in Extreme Situations.
Andrey Ilyichev.

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