The outcome of many injuries and diseases that have arisen (snake bites, lightning strikes, etc.) largely depends on timely medical care. In conditions of an autonomous existence, knowledge of self-help and mutual assistance methods for injuries, fractures, bruises, burns, poisoning, etc., is especially necessary, because you have to rely only on your own strengths.
The first medical self and mutual aid for bleeding, fractures and dislocations in an autonomous existence.
You must be able to stop bleeding, to help with fractures and burns, a lightning strike and, of course, correctly and with maximum effect, use the medicines and dressings available in the emergency kit.
Emergency Medical Kit.
A medical kit is an integral part of emergency stock. Of course, it’s almost impossible to assemble a first-aid kit suitable for all occasions, just as it is impossible to foresee all the diseases that exist in this world. And at the same time, with a reasonable approach, it is possible to create an optimal variant of it, focusing on diseases, the occurrence of which is most likely in the conditions of autonomous existence in general and this particular geographical area of the globe in particular. For example, in the composition of the first-aid kit intended for use in the desert, it is reasonable to include anti-snake and anti-Karakurt serum, a cream-protector from sunburn.
The tropical version of the first-aid kit can be supplemented with repellents against leeches and flying bloodsuckers, dust from fungal diseases of the feet, an antimalarial drug, etc. However, each first-aid kit should have a minimum of medicines and dressings necessary for emergency medical care for injuries, acute inflammatory diseases and some mental conditions. Here’s what an approximate list of funds for providing medical care in an autonomous existence will look like.
For injuries. A rubber tourniquet to stop bleeding, an individual dressing bag (at least one for each person), sterile bandages and napkins, a bactericidal patch, a sticky patch, tincture of iodine, rectified medical alcohol.
To prevent shock. Solutions of morphine, pantopon in soft metal syringe tubes with sterile needles.
With inflammatory diseases of various kinds (including gastrointestinal and colds). Broad-spectrum antibiotics.
In acute cardiovascular diseases. Nitroglycerin, corvalol, obzidan, solutions of caffeine, adrenaline and lobelin in ampoules.
With burns and frostbite. Syntomycin emulsion.
With inflammatory eye diseases. Tetracycline ointment.
It is advisable to have preparations that increase the general tone of the body, increase working capacity (sydnocarb, phenamine, cola, etc.), as well as tranquilizers (phenibut, trioxazine, seduxen, phenazepam, etc.) that relieve feelings of fear and mental health. tensions that often occur in people in extreme situations. The simplest medical tools will prove to be very useful: pointed scissors, surgical tweezers, a scalpel, a syringe in an airtight transport cartridge.
In addition to the medicines available in the emergency first-aid kit, various wild-growing medicinal plants, their fruits, leaves, roots, etc. can be used to provide medical care. But for this, you must be able to accurately determine the plant by description, know its healing properties and methods of its preparation.
The first self and mutual aid in bleeding.
Bleeding, depending on the vessel from which they originate, is divided into arterial and venous. Arterial bleeding is characterized by a gushing jet of scarlet in the color of blood. With venous bleeding, dark, oxygen-poor blood is poured out in a continuous uniform flow. Of course, stopping bleeding, especially from a large main vessel (carotid, femoral arteries), the measure is only temporary, but nevertheless it is necessary, because it helps to prevent a large loss of blood, which c. autonomous existence can be fatal.
The fastest, although short-term way to stop bleeding is to press the vessel with a finger. Anatomists and surgeons have identified the points at which the pressure of the vessel gives the greatest effect. When the brachial artery is injured, it is pressed with a finger to the bone along the inner edge of the biceps muscle. The femoral artery is pressed against the femur along the inner edge of the quadriceps muscle.
Arterial pressure point: 1 temporal, 2 external maxillary, 3 ulnar, 4 radial, 5 brachial, 6 axillary, 7 femoral, 8 posterior tibial, 9 anterior tibial, 10 right carotid, 11 subclavian.
With severe bleeding from the vessels of the neck and face to stop it, the carotid artery is pressed to the cervical vertebra along the inner edge of the sternoclavicular-nipple muscle. Limb bleeding can be stopped by flexion. To do this, in the ulnar fold or popliteal fossa, depending on the place of bleeding, a gauze roll is laid, and then the limb is maximally bent and bandaged. A more convenient and reliable method is the application of a tourniquet. In this case, the limb is pulled 5-10 cm above the site of injury with a few tight turns of the rubber band until the bleeding stops completely. In the absence of a special rubber tourniquet, you can use a twist tourniquet from a handkerchief or piece of cloth.
But in any case, the tourniquet can not be applied directly to the body (it is necessary to put a piece of fabric, a bandage) and hold for more than 1.5 hours. As experimental studies have shown, prolonged application of a tourniquet is extremely dangerous. It not only disrupts blood circulation in the limbs, but also leads to deep dystrophic processes in the internal organs, in the brain, heart muscle and often causes the development of shock (Danilovich, 1961). Therefore, after an acceptable period, the bleeding vessel is pressed with a finger and the tourniquet is relaxed for a while, until the limb turns pink again and warms up. If bleeding does not stop, the tourniquet is reapplied somewhat higher or lower than the previous place.
With a little bleeding, it is enough to squeeze the bleeding place with a sterile napkin and, having put a small roll of cotton wool, tightly bandage it. At low air temperatures, the limb on which the tourniquet is applied must be carefully wrapped to avoid frostbite. Epistaxis stops with cotton or gauze balls, which plug (tightly clog) a bleeding nostril. It is recommended that the victim be seated, his head thrown back and a napkin, a package with ice or snow, moistened with cold water, placed on the nose and forehead.
The first self and mutual assistance in fractures.
A fracture is a complete violation of the integrity of the bone with the separation of fragments. At the same time, the surrounding soft tissue is affected. Sometimes these are just small ruptures of muscles and small vessels, but in severe cases, fractures are accompanied by damage to nerves, large vessels, internal organs, spinal cord, etc. As a result, serious impairment of the functions of the limbs, organs, paralysis and other complications may occur. In cases where bone fragments are displaced and stick out under the skin or are visible from the wound (open fracture), it is not difficult to recognize the fracture. It is much more difficult to do this with fractures without displacement, with incomplete and hammered fractures.
If a fracture is suspected, it is first necessary to compare the damaged limb with a healthy one. Often it is shorter. Usually, a severe swelling forms at the fracture site. Even a slight touch causes pain, and mobility appears at the site of injury, although there is no joint. The task of first aid for fractures is to reduce pain, provide the wounded with complete rest, and, most importantly, prevent damage to the soft tissues (muscles, tendons) surrounding the fracture site. The victim should be laid down, reassured, given an anesthetic (analgin, promedol) and create immobility of the damaged limb.
When assisting with closed fractures, one should not remove clothes, shoes from the damaged part of the body without special need. They are only cut in the right place. With open fractures after stopping bleeding, a sterile dressing is applied to the wound. The direction of the fracture is allowed only if one of the victims’ companions owns the technique of this procedure. In all other cases, they are limited to measures providing rest for the injured limb, comfortable position and complete immobility.
At the same time, you must handle it with extreme care, do not pull it, do not leave it on its weight, and do not allow sudden movements. You can fix a limb to create immobility using an impromptu tire. It is made from any improvised materials of sticks, rods, bundles of reeds, etc. For the tire to fulfill its purpose, it must grab the two joints that are closest to the fracture when applied, and in case of hip fractures, all three joints: ankle, knee, and femur ( see picture). Put the tire on top of the clothes and on the side where the body surface is more even.
You can not apply the tire to the place where the broken bone protrudes, to pull it with a bandage at the level of perelrm. If there are no improvised means for making the tire, then, for example, in case of fractures of the arm to create immobility, you can bandage it to the body by bending at the elbow joint at an angle of 90 degrees, and turning the palm of the hand to the chest; a broken leg can be bandaged to a healthy.
Skull fractures, if open injuries are not visible, it can be diagnosed by a number of signs, the main of which are loss of consciousness, bleeding from the nose, ear, and mouth. The victim must be completely immobilized, put a cold on his head, and then, with headaches, give tablets of analgin, baralgin, etc..
Jaw fracture determined by its incorrect position, tooth displacement, bleeding from the oral cavity. The assistance consists of applying a sling bandage, rinsing the mouth with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Spinal fractures, especially with damage to the spinal cord below the fifth cervical vertebra, it is often accompanied by paralysis of the extremities and sensitivity disorder. Before assistance arrives as part of the search and rescue team, the victim must be laid on a flat hard surface, given an anesthetic.
With fractures of the cervical vertebrae transportation is carried out in a supine position on the back, placing a roll of folded clothes, parachute fabric, etc. under the neck, and in some cases under the shoulders, if the chest or lumbar regions are damaged, the patient is laid on his stomach. A cushion is placed under the upper chest.
With pelvic fractures, a sign of which is a sharp restriction of mobility (inability to sit down, turn on its side, raise legs), the victim needs complete rest. It should be laid on a flat surface, slightly bending the legs at the knees. All these measures for injuries of the spine and pelvis are taken to prevent the development of shock in the victim.
In case of rib fractures the most pronounced sign that allows you to quickly establish a diagnosis is a sharp pain at the site of damage with inspiration and pressure and, as a result, restriction of the respiratory movements of the chest. The simplest help with this type of injury is a tight circular bandage on the chest, applied after exhalation. In case of fractures of the upper and lower ribs around the chest at the level of the lower ribs on the exhale, a strip of adhesive patch is applied.
The first self and mutual assistance with dislocations and sprains.
Dislocations displacement of one or several bones of the joint is easily determined by the sharp pain of the joint and the complete impossibility to produce movement in it. Usually, the external shape of the joint changes in this case: the head of the displaced bone forms a ledge, and in its usual place there is a cavity. The whole limb takes a forced, incorrect position..
If none of those around knows how to correct the dislocation, one should restrict oneself to a tight fixing bandage or applying a tire to ensure the limb is completely motionless. Sprain is determined by acute pain at the time of injury, the appearance of a uniform tumor and, finally, soreness and limited movement in the joint. Best stretching aid tight dressing and cold (flask with cold water or snow, ice).
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.