Any open damage in case of injury, accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membranes, in conditions of autonomous existence, is dangerous not only by bleeding, but also by the possibility of pathogens entering the wound..
The first self and mutual assistance in case of injury, burns, shock, fainting and respiratory arrest in an autonomous existence.
Therefore, the main rule in case of injury, which must be strictly observed by a person who helps not to touch the wound with his hands. It is forbidden to wash or clean a contaminated wound in case of injury, as it is easy to damage tissues and cause infection. The edges of the wound are lubricated with iodine or alcohol, and then a sterile dressing is applied to it, for which an individual package is used. At the same time, the assisting person holds the pads with the left hand, and with the right hand, pulling the bandage, bandages the wound from left to right, from the periphery to the center.
When wounding and dressing, do not touch the surface of the bandage with your hands facing the wound. In the field, you can use Magellan sphagnum (Sfagnum magellanicum Brid.), A perennial swamp moss with large red or yellow turfs, as a dressing material. It is widespread in high bogs with pine trees, in forests, mountains and tundra. It is preliminarily cleaned of the lower coarse parts of the stem, carefully wrung out by hand and dried in air. In addition to its high hygroscopicity, i.e. the ability to absorb liquid, it contains substances that have a detrimental effect on the microbial flora of suppurating wounds, and therefore accelerates their healing when wounded.
The first self and mutual aid for burns.
Exposure of open flame, hot steam and water, hot objects, flammable liquids, chemicals, etc. to the tissues of the human body causes burns of various depths and lengths. In conditions of autonomous existence in the desert, in the tropics, often severe burns arise from exposure to direct solar radiation. With first-degree burns, the skin only swells slightly, reddens and it is enough to wipe the affected area with alcohol, apply an aseptic dressing with anti-burn liquid or synthomycin emulsion so that all unpleasant phenomena disappear soon.
With II degree burns with the formation of blisters, you can limit yourself to the same measures. Burns of the III degree damage not only the skin, but also the underlying tissues (subcutaneous tissue, muscles, blood vessels, bones). With burns of the fourth degree, carbonization of the tissues occurs. In case of burns of III and IV degrees, in addition to the above help, the victim is given plenty of water and pain medications (promedol, etc.).
First Aid for Shock.
In case of injury, as a result of severe traumatic injuries, extensive burns and other causes, a person may develop shock. Special fatal condition. Overwork, cooling of the body, great blood loss, nervous strain, etc. contribute to it. This condition is easy to diagnose if you recall the amazingly accurate description of it made by the great Russian surgeon N. I. Pirogov back in the last century.
With a severed arm or leg, lies so numb at the dressing station. He does not shout, do not yell, do not complain, do not take part in anything and does not require anything; his body is cold, his face is pale, like a corpse. The gaze is fixed and turned into the distance. The pulse is like a thread, barely visible under the finger and with frequent intermittents. Numb or does not answer questions at all, or only to himself, in a slightly audible whisper; breathing is also barely noticeable (Pirogov, 1941).
In conditions of autonomous existence, the main means of dealing with shock are peace and warmth. The victim is laid on the litter, they are given plenty of hot drink, bottles and flasks of hot water, heated in a fire, and then stones wrapped in cloth, etc. are used as warmers. Depending on the composition of the first-aid kit available to those in distress, you can give an injection of caffeine, cordiamine, morphine from a syringe tube or give promedol, analgin tablets inside.
First aid for loss of consciousness and fainting.
In case of loss of consciousness, a sharp blanching of the face, the appearance of cold sweat on the face and palms of a person, it is necessary to lay down, unfasten the collar, unfasten the waist belt, and let ammonia smell. After regaining consciousness drink a hot drink.
First aid for carbon monoxide poisoning.
Bonfires, stoves, grease lamps, etc., used for heating in closed, poorly ventilated shelters (huts, needles, caves), with careless handling can always cause severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide formed during incomplete combustion of fuel due to poor airflow is odorless, which makes it especially dangerous. A person usually does not feel mild poisoning, but as the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air increases, unpleasant sensations in the heart can appear, dizziness, severe weakness, nausea.
Having lost consciousness, a person easily perishes, if you do not give him immediate help. The presence of carbon monoxide in the air can be identified by a change in the color of the flame. It begins to gradually turn yellow. In this case, it is necessary to ventilate the shelter immediately, increase the flame, and provide it with an air flow. Poisoned people must be taken out to fresh air as soon as possible, allowed to smell liquid ammonia, and drink hot tea or coffee. When you stop breathing, do artificial respiration.
First aid for respiratory arrest.
Whatever the cause, it is necessary to lay the victim on his back, clean his mouth and nasopharynx from mucus, blood, unfasten his belt and begin artificial respiration. In case of drowning, it is necessary to release the respiratory tract of the victim from water before performing artificial respiration. To do this, they put it belly on the lifeguard’s thigh so that the body and legs hang down, and press the back with the left hand, holding the legs with the right hand. Among the many methods of artificial respiration currently used for emergency care, the most effective method is mouth-to-mouth.
The victim is laid on his back and, having cleaned his mouth, nose and throat of blood, saliva, vomit, etc., immediately begin artificial respiration, and, to facilitate the access of air to the lungs, the victim’s head is thrown back as far as possible. Having inserted the thumb of the left hand between the teeth, pull the lower jaw down and hold it in this position. Clutching his nose with the thumb and forefinger of his right hand, take a deep breath, and then, tightly pressing his mouth to the victim’s mouth, produce a quick energetic exhalation. As soon as the chest expands, allow air to escape from the lungs (passive exhalation).
Reception is repeated with a frequency of 12 to 14 times per minute. In the absence of a pulse, artificial respiration is combined with indirect heart massage. The massage technique is simple. Having become on the right side of the victim, the carer puts his hand on the lower third of the sternum, palm down, on top of it the other, fingers facing the victim’s chin, and makes 3-4 rhythmic pressures, alternating them every 15-30 seconds with air blowing. Indirect cardiac massage is performed strictly in the rhythm of 50 60 presses per minute.
They press on the sternum with a sharp push so that it moves no less than 3–4 cm. To give the chest cage free, after each pressing the hands are quickly taken away. Massage should be done in such a position that when pressed, use the weight of your body. Artificial respiration and massage are performed until spontaneous breathing is restored or there are clear signs of death (rigor mortis, cadaveric spots, etc.).
First Aid for Lightning.
In mild cases, victims complain of severe hunger pain, imbalance, often photophobia, a feeling of pain, burning in the eyes. In severe cases, immediately after an injury, a loss of consciousness sets in. Hearing and vision are impaired. Often on the skin there are peculiar figures of lightning in the form of tree-like stripes of red-brown burns. Emergency care consists of artificial respiration and closed heart massage.
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.