The very first mufflers that found use for silencing the sound of firearms were muzzle and multi-chamber expansion devices, in which transverse diaphragms divided the internal volume of the device into separate compartments of expansion chambers. Powder gases, moving after the bullet, expanding and cooling sequentially in the chambers, constantly lost their energy, significantly reducing the sound pressure at the output of the device and the flash of the shot.
The first silencers for the sound of firearms, the silencers Maxim, integrated silencers, silencers for the sound of a shot Bramit.
The first mufflers of the sound of firearms, having commercial success, were designed by the inventor of the machine gun H.S. Maxim and his son H.P. Maksim. Various options for their design, patented in 1908-1910, are presented below..
shavings made of copper or brass. Passing in the housing in the opposite direction through this barrier, the gases were vented through the slotted holes in the lower rear of the muffler.
A traditional design variant of an expansion type silencer was developed, which was a relatively large volume preliminary expansion chamber coupled to a muzzle of a weapon and several expansion chambers following it, separated by diaphragms with a central opening, the diameter of which slightly exceeded the caliber of the weapon.
The volumes of the chambers can be either the same or decreasing towards the exit of the bullet from the silencer. The silencer diaphragms had a different design and geometric shape. For example, the figure below shows a diagram of the simplest silencer device with a deviation of the gas flow by conical baffles from the axis to the peripheral part, forming a series of expansion chambers of the same shape and volume.
Integrated Firearm Shot Mufflers.
A continuation of the development of the design of expansion-type muzzle chambers was the creation of a silencer, which is an integral part of the integrated weapon. The design diagram of the simplest integrated silencer, including a classic muzzle attachment, is given below. An integrated type of silencer design is characterized by perforation of the barrel outlet with radial holes located at the bottom of the rifling.
Through them, part of the powder gases is discharged into a blank expansion chamber located around the barrel. The introduction of powder gases from the bore leads to a decrease in bullet speed to subsonic. The design of the silencer allows you to reduce the length of the weapon compared to the use of a muzzle silencer. This improves performance. As a rule, the practical implementation of this design is a combination with a muzzle attachment, which makes up the second part of such a muffler, made in common with the barrel body.
Silencers of the sound of a firearm from the First World War.
Many silencer designs appeared during the First World War. The Stevens company proposed a successful design in 1914. In Russia, silencers were successfully developed by A. Ertel, who proposed his design in 1916. In the USSR, silencers were developed by Markevich, Korolenko, Gurevich, later the Mitina brothers the Bramit device.
Before the Second World War, this area of military equipment did not receive significant development, since the tactics of warfare did not provide for the hidden destruction of enemy personnel at short distances, with the exception of partisan operations. This explains the absence of silent weapons in the armies of the countries of the world and the Red Army until the mid-30s, although the designs of various “silencers” are described in textbooks for schools of weapons technicians back in 1934.
Silencers for the Bramit Shot.
During the years of World War II, silencers were already widely used. Interest in the problem of silencing the sound of a shot revived due to the growing importance of reconnaissance and sabotage operations in the rear of the enemy, which led to the emergence of appropriate military formations and the rapid development of special weapons for them. Special reconnaissance and sabotage and partisan groups of the GRU GSH and NKVD successfully used regular and sniper rifles, model 1981/1930, and carbines of the 1938 model of the Mosin system with a Bramit silencer in the rear of German troops..
Scheme and device silencer shots “Bramit”.
Silencers for the sound of a Bramit shot are a cylindrical body consisting of two parts connected by a thread. Two rubber shutters were inserted into the front part (I), one (2) of which was clamped when twisting the parts of the case, and the other (3) when twisting the cover (4) having an outlet (5). Obturators divided the internal volume of the muffler into two chambers. In the first chamber there is a cutter of powder gases advancing the bullet.
The silencers for the Bramit shot were 32 mm in diameter and 140 mm long. The full length, along with a seat on the barrel of a weapon similar to a bayonet (bayonet mount), was 232 mm. The seals were 15 mm thick. Upon departure, the bullet pierced both shutters in turn and exited the device. Gunpowder gases from the bore, expanding in the first chamber, lost pressure and slowly blew out through the side openings.
Part of the powder gases that burst along with the bullet through the first obturator, expanded in the same way in the second chamber and blew out through the side opening. As a result of these processes, the sound of the shot was extinguished. When shooting with the Bramit device, a cartridge with a light bullet and a reduced charge of gunpowder was used. The German army was armed with a Mauser 98K carbine with a silencer, which differed from the Bramit only in the attachment point on the barrel. When shooting from a carbine, cartridges with subsonic speed were also used..
Based on the book Devices for reducing the sound level of a shot for automatic weapons.
Konovalov N.A., Pilipenko O.V., Skorik A.D., Kvasha Yu.A., Kovalenko V.I..