The general strategy and tactics of survival after an accident or disaster in the mountains, the organization of self and mutual insurance during descents and movements in the mountains.

In general, the strategy and tactics of survival in the mountains directly depends on the vertical zonality, that is, on what height the accident occurred. In high mountains, victims will face approximately the same problems as in high latitudes, lack of food products of plant and animal origin, low air temperatures, snow cover, lack of fuel for emergency fires, etc.. 

General strategy and tactics for survival after an accident or disaster in the mountains, organization of self and mutual insurance during descents.

The forest belt provides approximately the same opportunities for survival as taiga, etc. However, there are purely mountain dangers, both threatening the life of a person who has suffered an accident, and in themselves capable of causing a disaster. The most serious risk factors in the first place should be attributed to a specific mountainous terrain, which has a predominantly vertical structure, and the associated avalanche hazard, rockfalls, and serious thunderstorm hazard. The possibility of disruptions from vertical plumb lines, falling.

through mountain rivers, with an underestimation of the strength of the water flow and low water temperatures. From here it is very important, especially in the conditions of an accident, to take seriously the crossings even through the smallest and at first glance safe water barriers.

seekers navigate.

Particular attention should be paid to the ability to give a distress signal and organize the reception of a rescue helicopter. Since rescue operations involving aviation are most common in the mountainous regions of the country. More information about traveling in highlands, about the dangers associated with this can be found in the widespread tourist or climbing literature. In specialized magazines and newspapers. The only thing I will mention is the use of ropes for self-organization and mutual insurance. Again, not in terms of mountaineering, but survival. Moreover, in a situation where it is necessary to overcome a dangerous section of the terrain, not without the risk of falling from a height of several tens of meters, a person can be not only in the mountains.

Ropes and cords, organization of self and mutual insurance during descents and movement in the mountains.

For ropes used in mountaineering, there are GOSTs that are strictly defined and no less strictly executed. Still would! They have to trust their own lives. Here hack at a loss. In an emergency, ropes that meet all quality standards may simply not be found. Therefore, in exceptional cases, when it is impossible to get around an obstacle, the use of improvised ropes is permissible. You can even make them from natural material. But I do not dare to publish these recommendations known to me, fearing responsibility for possible misfortunes related to their breakage. In any case, all the ropes you have before use as insurance should be checked with a double, or better with a triple load, including breaking. If you have to hang on it alone, do the same, but in a safe place, together, or three.

For example, catch on a high branch on a tree and, grasping everything together, jump from a height of 2 3 meters, pulling the rope on which you hang. Then carefully inspect the rope along the entire length for broken fibers, puffs, deformations, etc. defects. But even if this rope passed the test, it must be used very carefully, constantly monitoring its condition. When carrying out insurance with a random rope, you should try to keep it tightened, thereby reducing possible breaking loads. Once again I will repeat the tactics of climbing insurance in the case of using a non-standard rope can only be used in a very truncated volume. This applies equally to overcoming vertical obstacles in general..

Where the climber goes, you better crawl. Where he boldly pits 10 meters of rope, you better limit yourself to two. Where he assesses an obstacle as medium lightness, you should find it particularly difficult. And finally, where he goes uphill (for that he is a climber), you better look for workarounds. The last is the most reasonable. A rope can be used to arrange fabric shelters, fishing, drying clothes and other household needs. It will not be useless. Descent from steep slopes on a rope is permissible only in cases where all other possibilities have been exhausted. To do this, the rope winds up behind the support (stone, tree), stretches to the middle and so, in a double form, is passed through the leg and shoulder (see figure).

After the descent, the rope gently, without jerking, is pulled out at one of the ends, until it is completely released. Before setting off on a risky slope, you should practice somewhere in a safe place. The same rope can be turned into a less reliable safety harness, necessary when moving along steep slopes and working on plumb lines. In addition to the ropes, you can use ribbons cut from strong fabric. One of the options for an impromptu harness is shown in the figure. In any case, primitive harnesses made from random materials cannot be considered a full-fledged replacement for natural harnesses made using the technologies described in the specialized literature..

Using a primitive harness is permissible only with simple insurance and at low altitudes. Having previously tested it for breaking and self-tightening. The latter is extremely important, since spontaneous chest harnesses that spontaneously drag out upon a break from a height can cause a person serious injuries. When traveling in the mountains along steep mountain slopes, victims should be prepared for the fact that at any next moment they can slip or stumble and fall. And we must remember that any fall in the mountains could be fraught with the subsequent multi-meter flight into the abyss. If you do not stop it at the very beginning, while the sliding speed is still low. In tourism, this action is defined by the term self-retention.

Self-retention should be carried out on grassy slopes and taluses, abutting against the surface of the slope with the lower end (bayonet) of the ice ax, alpenstock, or a strong one replacing them with a pointed and burnt end of the stick. When the slip begins, you should roll over on your stomach, spread your legs slightly and, thereby increasing the area of ​​friction, stop. If this is not enough, it is necessary to rest against the slope with an alpenstock, a stick, in a pinch with a knife. In case of a breakdown on the ice slope, it is necessary to cut into the ice the beak of an ice ax or some sharp object similar to it (ax, knife) and do not weaken the pressure until it stops.

For descent and ascent along mountain slopes, people who do not have mountain training are best to use improvised rope ladders. The rope ladder is the most convenient and affordable object for climbing equipment for disaster victims, since it does not require special skills when using it. Rope ladders can be like two traditional ropes spaced 20-30 cm apart, connected by wooden beams. So non-traditional single-rope with loops connected from the same or another rope.

The general strategy and tactics of survival after an accident or disaster in the mountains, the organization of self and mutual insurance during descents and movements in the mountains.

In the absence of a suitable tree, you can do only with a rope, tying the steps’ loops throughout its entire length. Rope ladders are more convenient, where the knots on the hinges are enlarged due to the additional weaving with a rope. Such steps give great support to the foot. Given that the basis of the equipment of any mountain traveler is a rope, here are a few drawings that show: how to mark the rope in a bay convenient for carrying and storing. How to make a thick rope from several thin ones by twisting or weaving. How to join ropes of the same and different thickness.

The general strategy and tactics of survival after an accident or disaster in the mountains, the organization of self and mutual insurance during descents and movements in the mountains.

I will no longer detail the chapter on self-rescue in the mountains, for the simple reason that, unlike, for example, a marine emergency, taiga or even a desert, an ordinary person cannot easily get into a highland. To do this, he, at a minimum, will have to purchase specific mountain equipment and learn how to use it. Why resemble consultations in the climbing section or read special literature. That is, I have to undergo, in one form or another, preliminary training, which will be much more effective than my theoretical recommendations.

Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.
Andrey Ilyin.

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