The law on weapons in Russia. Just about the complicated

In the following text, we will attempt to clarify the main points that are regulated by the federal Gun Act No. 150-FZ of December 13, 1996, for potential and current owners of various kinds of firing devices. It should be very well understood that, although some types of weapons can be acquired absolutely freely, this does not at all give the right to ignore the requirements established by the aforementioned law for the owners of any weapons, regardless of the order in which they are acquired.

So, what types of weapons can adult citizens of Russia acquire without spending time on bureaucratic procedures, such as registering a license with the subsequent registration of the purchased weapon with the police? First, and most likely everyone knows, this list includes air pistols and rifles. Secondly, the signal weapon. And thirdly, there are even some types of firearms that can be bought completely freely, like some household items, which is not known to everyone.

Free-Range Firearms

Let us dwell in more detail on unlicensed firearms, so once again not to intrigue the reader. These include long-barreled guns, that is, with a barrel longer than 80 cm, shotguns loaded from the muzzle, and having only one barrel, which can be both smooth and with screw grooves. Such guns can be equipped with a flint or impact-capsule lock.

We add that the above applies only to new-made replicas and copies of antique weapons, and not to antiques. Genuine old pistols and musketons can be acquired by Russian citizens completely unlimited only if the length of the barrel does not reach the eighty centimeters established by law. More than 80 cm – this, it turns out, is already a full-fledged firearm, which is purchased only under a special license.

Trying to shoot from antique weapons is not necessary, because it, as practice shows, because of fatigue phenomena in the metal of the barrel, often does not withstand the stresses that inevitably arise when shooting, and explodes, which can lead, first, to injury of the shooter, secondly, to his liability for the destruction of cultural heritage.

Why the law on weapons thus divides antiques and replicas is not very clear. But, unfortunately, it is rather difficult to buy modern copies of vintage guns, as they are rarely available and costly. So the prices for the lowest quality Indian-made samples start at sixty thousand rubles, and for Italian guns there will be no limit and a threshold of two hundred thousand.


Let’s go to air guns. Here you should know that unlicensed firing pneumatics is divided, according to the law on weapons, into two very different categories on the kinetic energy of the shot: up to 3 J and from 3 to 7.5 J. The first one is not considered a weapon at all, but Here is the second, where the lion’s share of high-quality air rifles belongs, is a weapon. From this fact it follows that the same rules apply to this type of pneumatics as to licensed weapons, excluding only the requirement of mandatory storage in a safe.

These rules are very simple, and we recommend remembering them:

  • it is allowed to shoot only in places specially set aside for this, that is, on shooting ranges, as well as in shooting galleries;
  • transport weapons must be unloaded in the package or in a case;
  • wearing is prohibited.

For violation of the above rules relies administrative responsibility by a fine with confiscation of weapons. It is not necessary to bring this up, since then it will create problems in obtaining a license for a more serious weapon.

Signal weapon

The same requirements apply to signal weapons, that is, starting revolvers and pistols. There is, however, such a type of weapon as SHP, i.e. Ivory Shooting. In fact, these are all the same flares, but of greater, and most importantly non-standard, caliber, in order to avoid the use of gas cartridges in them, although there are SHP guns. And even automatic, because this category, as well as pneumatics, is not subject to the prohibition of firing bursts. Also known SHS trim. There is no exact definition of the status of SHP, even at the level of weapons it is, or not.

Based on the foregoing, it is quite possible that after a shooting wedding with the use of SHP it will be possible to prove in court that the fine was imposed improperly, because no weapon was used at this event. Judicial practice, however, as if it was not, so it is better not to take risks and follow all the rules prescribed by the law on weapons.

Licensed weapons

And what is available to citizens of our country under a license? First of all it sporting and hunting rifles with a smooth barrel, intended for firing shot, shot and bullet. go further rifles and rifles with a rifled barrel a length of more than 80 cm, and the number of cartridges in the store within ten cartridges. Closes the list firearm of limited destruction (OOOP), that is, traumatic revolvers and pistols, shooting rubber bullets, as well as gas short-barreled weapon.

Here we must remember that licenses for smooth-bore, traumatic, gas or hunting airguns can be issued immediately, and a license for a rifled carbine will take five years of experience in owning a hunting-bore weapon. It is a hunting one, since a gun, declared as self-defense, is not suitable for this purpose. Hunter pneumatics, however, too.

It should be noted that for novice hunters who really want to have a rifle, there is a loophole, allowing not to wait for five long years. This loophole is called Lancaster drill. The barrel with such a drill, as stated in the law on weapons, equates to a smooth one, since from it, in principle, you can shoot a shot, but the accuracy of shots with bullets from such a barrel is at the level of rifles, though not the highest quality ones. For hunting this is enough, if not aiming at high-precision shooting at long distances.

Pistols in Russia

And how are things with short-barreled weapon more serious than OOOP? Of course, not as good as many would have liked, but it should be noted that the leisure phrase about a complete ban on a short-barrel in Russia, to put it mildly, does not correlate with the current reality.

Ordinary citizens of Russia, if they are not sportsmen-dischargers and do not deserve award weapons, it is possible to own pistols, shooting lead, not rubber or gas, if they become weapon collectors. For this it is necessary to issue a collection license, which will cost more than usual, even hunting, even self-defense, since the future collector will not only have to buy a safe, but equip a weapon room with a safe door, barred windows and alarms.

However, not everyone can collect pistols, but only those that are not in service with power structures at the present time. It follows from the law on weapons that in Russia it is legal to own Walter or Colt, and Makarov or Yarygin cannot. However, here it must be borne in mind that the collection license does not permit the use of short-barreled weapons in self-defense.


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