To tasty and rationally cook meat, you need to be able to handle it correctly. And this means choosing and applying a meat processing technique that is “the fastest and most delicious”. We offer you basic meat processing techniques in alphabetical order.
The main culinary techniques of cutting and processing meat, cooking, aging, soaking, roasting, baking, salting and others.
Steaming and steaming meat.
You can cook any meat, but usually more sinewy pieces are cooked: neck, chest, side and shoulder parts, tongue, kidneys, brains, head and drumsticks. Meat is steamed and in water. In the first case, dry matter weight loss is about 2%, in the second from 2.3 to 2.7%. The greater the greater the amount of water.
, it makes no sense to cook in a pressure cooker. But beef rich in connective tissue, the meat of an old moose is better to cook in a pressure cooker. With this method of processing meat, it is put in a pressure cooker in raw form or, after frying. Add some broth or water and some salt..
They put very few roots, since when cooking under pressure, seasonings and spices very much affect the taste of meat. Meat can only be refilled after it becomes soft. A sauce is prepared from the meat juice released during cooking.
Shortly after the slaughter of animals, muscle stiffness sets in. The meat becomes tough and tasteless. Therefore, it is better to use its post-aging (ripening). However, poultry and young animals are often eaten immediately after slaughter. Although after ripening, it would become much tastier. With this method of processing meat, it is kept in a cool place (at a temperature not exceeding 8 degrees) in a suspended form within a week.
Further aging can lead to spoilage of meat, since in soft form it is a favorable environment for the development of microbes. E. Molokhovets has some very practical advice on the maturation of game. There are other ways to soften meat: pickling, beating, softening with proteolytic enzymes, etc..
The meat with blood is soaked for some time in cold water. Then washed in clean water and only then begin to cook. Corned beef is soaked in cold water (below 15 degrees). With this method of processing meat, the duration of soaking slightly salted meat is 3-5 hours. Such meat can be cooked without steeping.
Very salty meat is soaked for up to 24 hours, while changing the water after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 hours. As a result of soaking, the weight of the meat increases by 7-10%, the salt content drops to about 3%. Before roasting, soaked meat is dried with a towel.
Fat free meat roasting.
In this way of processing meat, it is good to cook young meat. The meat is fried over hot coals, in a hot oven or electric grill. Under the influence of infrared rays emitted by hot coals or a hot spiral, the meat warms up 2-2.5 times faster than with ordinary frying in an oven or in a pan. The loss of fat and juice is 5-16% less.
That is why the food prepared in this way of processing meat is juicy and tasty. And to make it even tastier, we advise, before starting to roast, briefly dip the meat in the marinade, grease with vegetable oil and spicy sauce.
Roasting meat in the oven.
With this method of processing meat, it is fried in large pieces weighing 1-3.5 kg. It is advisable to remove bone from too thick femoral pieces and dress the meat so that a roll forms. Small animals and poultry are fried whole. Lean meat, before placing it in the oven, smeared with warmed butter or sour cream, greasy meat is poured with water.
Lean roast and roll should be fried beforehand in fat in a pan on the stove to form a golden crust. The fatter the roast, the higher the initial temperature (up to 230 degrees). As soon as the meat is browned, it should be sharply reduced to the required level (usually 130-150 degrees, for fatty meat – 175 degrees). Small pieces of meat are fried at a higher temperature, but faster.
In general, the duration of the roasting depends on the size and thickness of the piece of meat. Often the internal temperature of a piece is checked with a suitable thermometer. A half-baked roast beef, when piercing with a needle, red juice flows out, has a temperature of 55 degrees. Half-fried roast beef, giving a moist juice, 60-70 degrees.
During roasting, approximately every 10-15 minutes, the meat is poured with hot broth or water. If the roast is too greasy, then the fat is scooped up from time to time so that it does not burn in the pan. The readiness of the meat is checked with a needle or knitting needle. A reddish liquid is released from raw meat, it does not stand out from roasted meat.
Roasting meat in the main way.
The meat is fried with a little or more fat. For frying, fats containing a small amount of water are used. Vegetable oil, melted animal fats, vegetable fat and mixed, or, as they are otherwise called, table fats. Butter and margarine contain too much water (up to 20%), so do not fry them
recommended, although some meat dishes are fried on them to give meat a special flavor.
When frying in a small amount of fat, it is put on a preheated pan and brought to 170-180 degrees so that it starts to smoke slightly. A slice of meat is dipped in hot fat and fried first from one side, then from the other side. If several slices of meat are fried in one pan at once, then before putting each next piece, the fat is allowed to warm well.
Then the meat will be well cooked, it will be tasty and juicy. Before stewing meat, slices of it are fried in a saucepan without a lid or in a pan. When roasting under the lid, the meat is not browned. When frying in a large amount of fat (4-5 times more than the product), the fat is heated in gooseberries. When the temperature of the fat is so high that the wet needle or fork dipped in it starts to hiss, slices of meat are put into the fat.
They should float freely in fat, and they should be put in such an amount that the fat does not cool too much. Chunks of meat browned on both sides are placed on paper so that excess fat is absorbed into it. Natural roasting is called roasting a non-breaded piece of meat..
Roasting meat in foil.
With this method of processing meat, its small, quickly softened pieces or minced meat are placed on pieces of foil in such an amount that each portion can be completely wrapped in foil. The meat is sprinkled with salt, seasoned with spices and seasonings, wrapped in foil so that the juiced juice does not flow out, and baked at a temperature of 170-190 degrees until fully cooked (20-30 minutes). Ready meat is removed from the foil, the juice is used as a sauce. Instead of foil, you can use parchment.
With this method of processing meat, cooked, stewed and fried meat by baking, you can cook a completely new dish. The meat is placed in a refractory form, covered with a layer of thick goose sauce and baked in a very hot oven (220-250 degrees) until golden brown.
It is used to preserve meat if it is not possible to freeze it. You can also salt small pieces by adding spices.
Grinding meat in a meat grinder.
With this method of processing meat, it must first be cut into small pieces. Remove bones, tendons and films. Put the meat in a meat grinder and press it to the screw with a wooden spoon or pestle, but not with your fingers. In order for all the meat to pass through the meat grinder, you can put soaked white bread, onions, potatoes, boiled beets in the last portion. That is, everything that is part of the cutlet mass.
Knife chopping meat.
With this method of processing meat, it must be ground to prepare some meat dishes. Meat of the second grade is usually minced. Cooked, fried meat, sausage, ham, etc. are also chopped. Meat intended for chopping should be cut across the fibers into thin slices and then chopped on a special board or deck for chopping meat with one or two choppers. Add raw water and seasoning to the raw minced meat. White bread and potatoes should not be added. Chopped meat is also used for making sauces, casseroles, etc..
Organic acids – acetic, citric, lactic, tartaric and ascorbic – make the meat softer and more tender. Therefore, the meat of old wild animals, birds and beef are often kept in an acidic solution before cooking. Sometimes the meat of young animals is also pickled to give it a specific taste. Hard old meat is pickled for about a week, but it takes several hours to dress, depending on the strength of the marinade.
The marinade should be enough to barely cover the meat. When marinating small pieces of meat, it should be remembered that each piece should be surrounded on all sides by a marinade. Excess marinade depletes meat. The usual calculation: for 1 kg of meat take half a glass — a glass of cold marinade (4-6 degrees). As marinades you can use:
– Yogurt, buttermilk (liquid after whipping oil) or whey. They keep the meat in them for 2-3 days, turning it from time to time.
– Wine or sour fruit juice: apple, currant, lemon.
– Table vinegar (2-3%) with various seasonings: onions, peppers, bay leaves, cloves and herbs.
– Spicy sauces with vegetable oil, vinegar, wine or juice.
During marinating, the meat is in a cold place, at a temperature below plus 8 degrees.
Method for heat treatment of meat in a microwave (microwave) oven.
If the meat is tightly closed (grease, water, a tight lid), the result is good. All the laws of cooking and roasting meat (a large piece requires more time, etc.). The simplest recipe: put fatty meat, spices in a deep special cup for a microwave oven, cover the same, put in the oven. Time – according to the instructions for the furnace. One of the advantages is the absence of a child.
Before slicing a piece of meat into slices, remove the films, tendons and pieces of fat. The meat is always cut across the fibers, the knife must be very sharp and thin. If you need to cut the meat into strips (beef stroganoff), then first cut a slice across the fibers and then chop it. Large pieces of fried and boiled meat should cool slightly, then the cut will turn out smoother and cleaner, and the meat will be more juicy, since less juice is released from the cooled meat.
The meat is washed in large pieces under running water. Chopped pieces of meat no longer wash, do not wash minced meat. Adhesive rubbish is best scraped off with a knife.
Singeing is resorted to when fluff remains on the plucked bird, and it, as a rule, remains. Dry the bird with a towel or rub it heavily with flour, then spread its wings and legs and keep it above the fire. After singing, the bird is washed.
For beating, a wooden or metal hammer-chopper is used. Chopped meat slices, flesh slightly beat off the smooth side of the hammer or the back of the knife – the meat will become softer. So that it does not stick to the hammer, it is lowered from time to time in cold water. If the meat is young, it is not necessary to beat it.
The surfaces of the fried products are rolled in an egg with flour or in ground breadcrumbs. Due to this, they become drier, better fried, meat preserves juiciness and fat. There are many breading options: in an egg, in flour, in breadcrumbs of different sizes and origin, in plant seeds, multilayer combinations.
In the finished form, the meat takes the form that it was given in its raw form, so the form must be taken care of in advance. The legs and wings of birds are tied so that the carcass is round, the head, if left, is hidden under the right wing. In general, you can experiment with the form, but do not get carried away with it to the detriment of the content.
Hot, uneven in shape, bandaged in the form of a thick sausage. The meat of the side of the carcass is sprinkled with spices or covered with a filling and rolled up in the form of a roll that is uniform in thickness. Tied with linen twine, as the paper crumbles and can get into food. Small rolls are tied with twine, one end of which is left loose.
It is recommended to boil the game first, let it dry and then overcook it in copious fat. For this, the pulp is cut into beautiful slices, in some cases they are breaded.
The films around and inside the pieces of meat are pulled together when frying, and the meat becomes ugly. Therefore, the films should be pre-cut in several places with a sharp knife. The films inside the slices are cut with a sharp knife, beating off the meat.
Salted meat and meat with blood are boiled to improve taste and color. The meat is poured with cold water and brought to a boil. Then the water is drained, you can’t eat it..
Meat softening enzymes.
The connective and muscle tissues of meat are softened using enzymes of animal, plant and bacterial origin. Enzyme preparations are powders and liquids. They are used to turn old hard meat into more tender.
Cutting meat into pieces.
Finished roast cut into portions in the kitchen or at the table. The poultry and the roast from the brisket are cut along with the bones. In large birds, the flesh of the brisket is often cut from the bones and chopped, the legs and wings are chopped off. The bones remain in the carcass. For grinding, a large knife and a large fork with two tines are used to hold the meat.
The best way to cleanse lard. Lean meat is scraped to obtain a tender and juicy mass without connective tissue. Do this with a sharp knife or the edge of a metal spoon. Crushed meat is used in seasoning for cooking Tatar meat or minced meat.
This includes cooking, stewing, frying in the main way, frying without fat and in the oven. During heat treatment, the color of the meat changes, the water content decreases (therefore, weight loss can be significant), a variety of new flavoring and aromatic substances are formed. These changes are generally useful, since as a result of them microbes die, rolled-up proteins are better absorbed than in raw ones, and appetizing smells appear. There are few meat dishes prepared without heat treatment in our area.
Extinguish mainly the thoracic, lateral and scapular parts, as well as the heart, liver and kidneys. The meat is cut into small pieces or stewed with a whole piece, which can be tied with twine so that an even oblong roll is formed. Sometimes the meat is pre-fried in hot fat until a light brown crust is formed, then liquids are added and stewed in a sealed container over low heat until it is ready.
Extinguishing can be accelerated by adding acidic foods to the meat. Unfried meat is put with a small amount of fat (you can use butter and margarine here) in a stewing dish, cover and stew in its own juice. This method is usually used when frying is not recommended for dietary purposes. In general, fried food is tastier. Onion, roots and tomato puree are added for taste..
Bone removal and stripping.
Usually meat bones are cut out. For some dishes (for example, for natural meatballs), the small ends of the costal bones are 4-6 cm long. They are cleaned with a knife from the connective tissue, then when fried they remain white.
The meat can be shaped not only by dressing, but also with a knife (laying and turning the edges of chops, shaping breaded cutlets), with your hands (making meatballs, setting the legs of birds into “pockets” – cuts on both sides of the abdomen), with a needle (stitching stuffed birds) and etc.
Lean meat of wild animals is almost always stuffed with lard or subcutaneous fat, which is somewhat worse. Lard bacon with a length of 5-6 cm and a thickness of 0.5 cm is introduced into the meat with a shpigovka or stuck into a knife puncture. To improve the taste, the meat is stuffed with garlic, onions, apples, etc. The meat, rolled up in a roll, is not pierced, the bacon and spices are placed inside.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..