For safe movement on a rocky gambling terrain, it is necessary to be able to organize insurance. This requires certain knowledge and skills in order to be able to tie the main recommended knots..
The main recommended nodes for safe movement on rocky and mountainous terrain, purpose, knitting, features and disadvantages.
General rules for knitting knots:
Lack of overlaps.
Correct knot pattern.
The size of the free end of the rope must be at least 10 diameters of the rope (7 cm).
Nodes must be tightened and straightened..
It should be borne in mind that knots tied to a rope weaken its strength by an average of 30-50%.
The main unit for snapping to a rope with a carabiner, fixing the rope at the station, organizing railings and so on. Such nodes are tightened under load.
Node Eight Node Node.
Such knots are used for tying to a rope without using a carabiner. First, the “skeleton” of the knot is knitted at one of the ends of the rope, then the outgoing (short) end repeats the shape of the “skeleton”.
Such nodes are used to snap to the rope with a carabiner, lock the station loop. Tightens under load.
The Austrian Explorer node or the Middle node.
The knot serves to snap the middle one in the participant’s bundle to the rope. Easy to untie.
The knot serves for fixing the rope at the station, organizing adjustable self-insurance and other things. It is easily released (untied) after loading (does not tighten). With a load of more than 4 kN “creeps”, a control unit is required.
The knot is used to tie the rope to the point of insurance, an anchor (tree, other), a control knot (option 1) or “semi-grapevine” (option 2) is required. Tightens under load. With a variable load, it “creeps”, so a “control” unit is required. It is unacceptable that a self-insurance or load snap into the loop of the “Bulin” knot;.
The Bulin knot tied around a support.
If it is necessary to tie up the control knots, it is recommended to knit half of the grapevine knot. To organize the descent, at the end of the rope, this knot is tied one meter from its end. When tying any control knot, it must be tied close to the main knot.
The knot is used to bind ropes of the same or different diameters (7-11 mm). Make sure that the “crosses” (knot pattern) are tied in one direction. Due to the cylindrical shape and rotation of the node, the risk of destruction of the node during its friction is reduced. Minimally weakens the rope. Such nodes are tightened under load.
Other names for this node are “Munter” and “Italian” node. Used to organize braking of the rope and organize insurance on the descent and ascent.
Simple or Flat Node.
Other names are “conductor”, “flat overhand”, “oak” knot. The knot is used to organize descent along a double rope. Also for tying the safety net grasping unit into the safety system, the organization of tackle systems and other.
Prusik knot or Prusik knot.
The Prusik node was invented in 1931 by Dr. Karl Prusik, President of the Austrian Mountaineering Club. It is used for safety during rope descent, rope climbing, organization of tackle systems and other things. It is recommended to use such knots in 3 turns around the rope..
The knot should be well tightened. The cord works best if its diameter is 2/3 of the diameter of the rope on which it will work. With a rope diameter of 9.5-11 mm, a cord with a diameter of 7 mm is suitable.
French grip knot.
It is used as a self-insurance during rope descent and in situations when the knot needs to be loosened under load. Knots knit from repshnur with a diameter of 6-7 mm in 5-6 revolutions. Tied and untied easily and quickly (unlike the Prusik knot).
Muntera Mule Node.
If you need to free your hands during insurance through the UIAA node, it is possible to fix a loose rope with a reef + control node close to the safety device. This scheme is called the “Muntera-Mula” node or simply “Mula”.
Endless Monkey Loop Node.
The node is used if necessary to shorten the rope and maintain the ability to quickly return it to its original position.
Based on the book School of mountaineering, a training manual.