The following are the most common injuries and injuries caused by an accident on land transport, an accidental or unsuccessful landing of an aircraft, shipwreck, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, storms, mudflows, rockfalls, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, forest, steppe and peat fires.
Injuries and health hazards in an accident on a ground transport.
The vehicle is completely crashed, rolled over or fell off a cliff. In these cases, the most frequently occurring syndrome is compression of the human body or its individual limbs, various simple and complex fractures, lacerations, severe bruises, separation of the limbs, and head injuries. Burning the vehicle may cause burns of varying severity..
Injuries and injuries due to emergency or unsuccessful landing.
A plane or helicopter during such a landing can crash into trees, a rock, split in half, catch fire and explode. Injuries in this case are very different, and their degree depends on the strength of the impact. Passengers receive especially severe injuries when their seatbelts are not fastened. In this case, even a conditionally soft landing will entail fractures, bruises, dislocations, burns and various injuries, as a person will be sharply thrown out of an armchair from a chair into the cabin when an aircraft hits a ground or rock.
Shipwreck injuries and health.
Basically, drowning, hypothermia of the body can be attributed to this type of catastrophe. Although other injuries, such as burns and various injuries, are not excluded..
Injuries and harm to health during tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, storms.
If you get into the zone of a sea tornado, hurricane and tsunami, drowning is possible, multiple fractures occurring when a person is transported by a wave or wind of enormous force, followed by ejection onto stones, buildings and other, no less serious injuries. Hurricanes of extraordinary power and destruction occur not only at sea. On earth, they are no less terrible and lead to severe injuries, and often to death. If it gets into a sandstorm, eye injuries, facial skin from sharp blows of hot sand, as well as choking from clogging with the sand of the upper respiratory tract can occur.
Injuries and injuries due to mudflows, rockfalls, avalanches.
When mudflows flow from mountains to the valley along riverbeds and streams, masses of water with mud, stones, and twisted tree trunks move with great speed. Getting into the mudflow is almost always fatal. This is due to the fact that people, as a rule, are buried under a thick layer of mudstone sediments and cannot be saved because of the complexity of the search. The main injuries are complex multiple fractures and injuries, craniocerebral injuries, strangulation and drowning, severe compression.
With rockfalls, two options can arise: in the first, stone scree begins to move on a steep slope, in the second, free fall of stones from steep sections of rocks. Rockfalls arise, both during careless movement of people along the slope, and due to natural causes, for example during the daytime, when thawing soil frozen overnight. Injuries vary from bruises to multiple fractures of varying severity and traumatic brain injuries. Getting into an avalanche is, in the first place, fraught with suffocation and hypothermia of the body. Sometimes there are fractures and injuries as a result of impacts on trees and stones encountered in the avalanche.
Earthquake Injury and Health.
The presence and nature of injuries depends on where the person was at the time of the earthquake. If in a building, then everything depends on the construction of the building, its number of storeys and earthquake resistance. Multi-storey non-earthquake-resistant buildings made of concrete panels are the most dangerous. During an earthquake, they add up like a house of cards, and surviving people receive a wide variety of injuries, injuries and fractures, as well as the most unpleasant damage to the body, compression syndrome.
When located in an open area, injuries from falling trees, detached rocks, the occurrence of rockfalls, and the formation of cracks in the ground are possible. Injuries correspond to the cause of occurrence: when a tree falls, fractures and squeezing, wounds. When stones fall, the same as already described above. When falling into a crack, it all depends on its depth and the ability to quickly detect the victim or the ability to get out of it yourself.
Injury and injury during volcanic eruption.
Typical injuries are associated with burns of varying degrees from contact with the lava flowing from the crater during the eruption. Under the influence of air, lava flows from above are covered with a dark and rather dense crust, which can sometimes even be walked on, but this is extremely dangerous because of the possibility of not only burning shoes, but also falling into a hot stream, the temperature of which is several hundred degrees. Being near the crater or on the slope of the volcano is dangerous not only during the eruption, but also because various toxic gases are often burst from the ground. Such gas outlets are called fumaroles. Often carbon dioxide, which is colorless and odorless, accumulates in low-lying areas of the relief and can cause severe, often fatal, poisoning..
Often from the cracks in the ground jets of hot steam burst out. This can result in scalding of the body surface and severe burns. During eruptions from the crater, in addition to molten magma, various stones are thrown from the smallest to the largest blocks. They are ejected from the vent to a great height and scatter in all directions. Injuries in this case are the same as with rockfalls. During eruptions, powerful mud flows like mudflows also occur. But, perhaps, even more terrible phenomenon can be called the falling of hot ash, which not only destroys everything around, but can also fill entire cities with a thick layer. When falling into such an ashfall, it is almost impossible to escape.
Injuries and injuries due to forest, steppe and peat fires.
Of course, the types of human injuries under these conditions are fumes and burns of varying degrees. But sprains, dislocations, and even fractures during a quick run over rough terrain when trying to get away from an impending fire are not excluded. There may be injuries to the face and open parts of the body with branches when crossing bushes. In addition, the peat layer burning underground is of great danger, since you can fall through and die, in the best case, get very severe burns.
It should be remembered that for all types of injuries, the victim experiences pain shock, not the psychological victim. It follows from all that has been said that all types of natural disasters, catastrophes and accidents cause a person similar injuries. You need to know them, if necessary, to be able to provide sufficiently qualified pre-medical care right at the scene of the tragedy.
Thus, in the first place during an accident or catastrophe is as quick and qualified as possible the provision of first aid. Without this, the possibility of overcoming an extreme situation is very problematic. Or simply impossible. Of particular importance is the ability to provide self-help in that situation if you are left alone. But there are types of severe injuries in which there is not enough basic knowledge. In addition, the conditions in which they were received do not allow the provision of first aid, and even more so self-help.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.