Some plants and mushrooms contain toxic substances that cause skin irritation or poisoning. First of all, small children are at risk, who must be taught not to touch unfamiliar plants. The following are descriptions of some of the most common hazardous plant and mushroom species..
The most common poisonous plants and fungi, appearance, symptoms of poisoning and the effects of toxic substances.
Aronnik spotted (Arum maculatum).
This plant is found in the south of the European part of Russia and in the Caucasus. It has arrow-shaped or heart-shaped leaves and a yellow-cob-shaped inflorescence, surrounded by a large white covering sheet, similar to a corolla of a flower. Aronnik blooms in May and June. The fruits are red berries. All parts of the plant are poisonous..
When poisoning, the lips and mucous membranes of the mouth and larynx swell, the voice becomes hoarse or even disappears. There are salivation and vomiting, palpitations, cramps. In severe cases, a coma develops and a fatal outcome is possible..
Common Hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium).
These are powerful tall plants with a pubescent ribbed stalk, large leaves and white, greenish or pinkish-inflorescences-umbrellas. May cause severe skin irritation, like sunburn, including blisters, which may later ulcerate..
Yew berry (Taxus baccata).
Yew berry evergreen conifer or shrub. All green parts of yew and seeds, surrounded by red berry-like seedlings, are very toxic and deadly to humans and many animals. In humans, poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea. And in severe cases, there is a heartbeat, loss of consciousness and collapse, which can result in death.
Digitalis (Digitalis sp.).
Various types of digitalis are cultivated as medicinal and ornamental plants. Wild species are found in the Caucasus. All of them contain biologically active “cardiac” glycosides, which are used as a medicine, but can also play the role of poison. The whole aerial part of the plant is poisonous, especially the leaves. In case of poisoning, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias up to cardiac arrest are observed.
Golden rain (Laburnum anagyroides).
These ornamental shrub plants are very popular, and at the end of spring in the gardens you can often see their beautifully hanging bright yellow inflorescences. Poisonous all parts of the plant, primarily bark and green seeds. The alkaloid contained in them causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, excessive sweating, salivation and pallor. In severe cases, convulsions and loss of consciousness occur, blood circulation is disturbed. When pruning bushes, care should be taken, since skin damage is possible..
Privet ordinary (Ligustrum vulgare).
The privet, belonging to the olive family, grows in the south in the Crimea and the Caucasus. The inflorescences of its white or yellowish flowers, similar to lilac brushes, smell rather unpleasant. These flowers, as well as privet fruits, black or dark blue berries, contain toxic substances that can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, kidney damage, cardiac abnormalities, and low blood pressure..
May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis).
This plant, known to everyone from the family of lily plants, contains poisonous substances that are used in medicine to normalize cardiac activity. Attractive (especially for children) red berries of a lily of the valley, like flowers, cannot be eaten. Their poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and heart rhythm disturbances. You can also be poisoned by water in which lilies of the valley stood.
Oleander (Nerium oleander).
This evergreen shrub with small leathery leaves and beautiful red, pink or white flowers is often used as an ornamental plant. The shoots and leaves of the oleander are poisonous, and you can poison yourself not only by eating them, but also by inhaling the smoke from their combustion. The water in which the oleander leaves lay becomes poisonous. Poisoning is accompanied by vomiting. And in severe cases, colic in the abdomen and cardiac abnormalities.
Snow White (Symphoricarpos albus).
Snowberry is universally grown as an ornamental plant. The flowers of this shrub are inconspicuous, but white large berries that hold on branches until winter are very beautiful. But their juice, as well as other parts of the plant, on skin or eyes, causes severe irritation. And if you eat berries, vomiting and diarrhea will begin.
Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum).
From July to late autumn, this weed plant is found in the fields and gardens with white, star-like flowers and black or greenish “pea” peas. All parts of the plant are poisonous..
The saponin and solanine contained in them, once in the digestive tract, cause sore throat, vomiting and abdominal pain, difficulty breathing and heart failure. In severe cases, coma. As they ripen, the toxic properties disappear and the ripe fruits are harmless..
Wolf bast (Daphne mezereum).
This low shrub, also called daphne, blooms with pink, lilac-like flowers before the leaves appear, in March-April. Bark, leaves, flowers and poisonous fruits. From chewing bark and berries, there is a burning sensation in the mouth, pain “under the pit”, nausea, and vomiting. Cramps are possible. Juice or moist bark on skin causes dermatitis.
Milestone Poisonous (Cicuta virosa).
This plant, reaching 1.5 meters in height, is found almost everywhere in damp places (on swamps, along river banks). Milestone is very toxic, and at different times of the year different parts of the plant are dangerous. So, in spring, the thickest rhizome, similar to the celery rhizome, is the most poisonous.
The effect of the plant on the human body is due to the cyclutotoxin contained in it, which causes a burning sensation in the mouth, headache, nausea, vomiting and convulsions. A characteristic feeling of cold throughout the body and a decrease in skin sensitivity. Poisoning can be fatal.
Amanita muscaria (Amanita muscaria).
A well-known mushroom, easily recognizable by a red hat with white dots, is found from late summer to late autumn. It has long been used to destroy flies. The toxic substances in this fungus, concentrated primarily in the hat, are very dangerous, and the consequences of their exposure are unpredictable. They almost do not affect some people, while others experience hallucinations and euphoria. Fatalities Known.
Common line (Gyromitra esculenta).
This fleshy mushroom with a folded brown hat and a whitish furrowed leg grows in spring on sandy soils, for example under pine trees, but is not common. It contains little-known toxic substances that cause severe poisoning, often fatal.
Pale Grebe (Amanita phalloides).
Pale grebe is one of the most poisonous mushrooms. It contains many different toxic substances. The frequent fatal outcome of poisonous toadstool poisoning is due to phallatoxins and amatoxins, which lead to fatal damage to the liver and kidneys. The grebes have a greenish, occasionally yellowish or white hat, emitting an unpleasant sweet smell. It can be confused with edible mushrooms such as mushrooms, rowadas and russula.
Panther Amanita (Amanita pantherina).
Panther growing in deciduous and coniferous forests, or gray, fly agaric is deadly poisonous. This mushroom with a faint pleasant smell has a yellowish-brownish hat, on which, like the red fly agaric, there are white warty remains of the bedspread. The picture of poisoning is the same as a pale grebe.
Mountain or plush web (Cortianirus orellanus).
Fortunately, this poisonous mushroom is rare. It grows in deciduous and mixed forests on clay soils, often singly, but sometimes in groups. The tollin toxin contained in it affects the kidneys. Symptoms appear on the fourth day, but sometimes after a few weeks.
First, the victim begins rapid urination, which then passes. Then there are abdominal pains, vomiting, dry mouth and thirst. The patient needs complex treatment in a hospital, otherwise poisoning can lead to death.
Blushing fiberglass (Inocybe erubescens).
This deadly poisonous mushroom is often found in places in deciduous and mixed forests, in gardens and parks on calcareous soil. Signs of poisoning with this fungus manifest quickly and are expressed in profuse sweating and salivation. The victim suffocates, his eyesight is impaired, the pupils become narrow, pains in the abdomen begin, he turns red, then turns pale, all this is accompanied by severe chills.
Entoloma ruptured (Entoloma rhodopoliun).
This poisonous mushroom grows in deciduous and mixed forests under deciduous trees and shrubs. Most often found under elms and birches. Causes severe gastric poisoning. The poison begins to act 1-3 hours after it enters the human body. Dizziness appears, followed by severe vomiting and diarrhea, which can last up to three days. With a large number of eaten mushrooms, death is possible.