Vitamins are necessary for the human body to absorb food. Any vitamin is actively involved in almost all biochemical reactions. Some of the vitamins can be synthesized by the microbial flora of the intestine, but most enter the body from the outside with food..
The need for vitamins for the human body, vitamin A, D, B1, B2, B5, B6, B12, PP, C, K, E, properties, which products are contained, daily requirement.
With irrational monotonous nutrition, as well as improper culinary processing of products, the intake of vitamins in the body may be insufficient. It is especially important to ensure that vitamins such as A, D, B1, B2, PP, C are systematically supplied to the body, which are rapidly destroyed and do not accumulate in the necessary quantities in the body. So, to ensure normal functioning, a person must receive the following vitamins in the required amount.
Vitamin A (Retinol).
It is necessary for the normalization of redox processes, ensuring the function of vision, to increase the body’s resistance. It actively promotes growth. A person needs 1.5 mg of vitamin A per day. It should be remembered that not only a deficiency is dangerous, but also an excess of vitamins A.
In its finished form, vitamin A enters the body only with products of animal origin. Beef liver is rich in them, as well as cod liver oil, sea bass, flounder, halibut. There is it in sour cream, cream, butter, egg yolk, milk.
Plant products (carrots, pumpkin, parsley, dill, tomatoes, sorrel, spinach, green onions, red peppers, tangerines, apricots, oranges, lemons, black currants, raspberries, apricots, rose hips, mountain ash, peaches) contain provitamin A – carotene . It is able to turn into vitamin A in the wall of the small intestine and liver. In order for carotene to be better absorbed, all carotene-containing products must be consumed either with sour cream or with vegetable oil. A person needs to receive 3 mg of carotene per day.
Vitamin B (thiamine).
Actively involved in the normalization of carbohydrate, fat, mineral and water metabolism. Favorably affects cellular respiration, cardiovascular and nervous systems. A small amount of thiamine is formed in the human intestines, but this is not enough.
The human body needs 2 mg of vitamin B per day. Essential sources of vitamin B are whole grains of grains, legumes, nuts, as well as buckwheat and oatmeal, rye bread, liver, kidneys of cattle and pigs, ham, yeast drinks, and bread kvass, soaked wheat and rye grains.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
Affects vision. Especially for the acuity of night vision and color discrimination. There is it in the composition of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, as well as the synthesis of proteins and fats. A day, a person needs 3 mg of vitamin B2.
This vitamin is resistant to cooking. Most of all it is found in products such as milk, yogurt, kefir, acidophilus, cheese, meat, liver, kidneys, heart, egg yolk, mushrooms, as well as brewing and culinary yeast.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid).
Essential for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. To stimulate the formation of hormones of the adrenal cortex. Most of pantothenic acid is found in the kidneys, liver, egg yolk, meat, milk, fish, peas, wheat bran, and yeast. Pantothenic acid is also produced by the microbes that live in the colon. A person needs 10-12 mg of these vitamins per day.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
It is part of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. It is this vitamin that helps to improve fat metabolism, increase urination. Pyridoxine is produced by germs in the intestines. A person needs approximately 2.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day.
A sufficient amount of this vitamin is found in unrefined grains of cereals such as rye, wheat, etc., as well as in meat, fish, vegetables, milk, cattle liver, egg yolk and yeast.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin).
Needed for the formation of nucleic acids, as well as certain amino acids. It is this vitamin that helps stimulate growth, normalize blood formation, as well as for the activity of the nervous system. Favorably affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Cyanocobalamin is found in meat, liver, eggs, fish, yeast and in medicinal preparations that are obtained from the liver of animals, as well as in milk, especially sour.
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid).
Together with vitamin B12, it regulates blood formation, the formation of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, as well as protein metabolism. Helps to stimulate growth, reduce fat deposition in internal organs. The daily requirement of the body for folic acid is 0.3 mg. It must be remembered that vitamin B12 is required to assimilate folic acid..
A sufficient amount of folic acid is found in vegetables such as tomatoes, beans, carrots, cauliflower, spinach, as well as in celery, green parsley leaves, brains, liver, kidneys.
Vitamin B15 (Calcium Pangamate).
It helps to improve fat metabolism, increase the content of substances such as creatine phosphate and glycogen, which are rich in energy, in the skeletal muscle, liver and heart, and helps the absorption of oxygen by tissues. This vitamin is found in brewer’s yeast, rice bran, liver, and plant seeds..
Vitamin B17 (Nitriloside).
Opened relatively recently. It is able to prevent the development of tumors, improves metabolic processes. This vitamin is found in fruits, cereals (wheat and rye), seeds, seeds of pears, apples, grapes.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid).
It is able to activate many enzymes, improves the absorption of iron, enhances the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells. It is this vitamin that stimulates the formation of such an important protein as collagen. Only he binds individual cells into a single tissue.
Ascorbic acid is able to increase the body’s natural immunobiological resistance to infectious, colds. A person needs 100 mg of vitamin C per day. The norm is increased for those who live in the Far North, in areas of hot climate, and work in hot shops. For those who engage in heavy physical labor, sports.
Vegetables, fruits, green parts of plants are rich in ascorbic acid. Most of all are vitamin C in rose hips, chokeberry, blackcurrant, unripe walnut, lemons. In autumn, a sufficient amount of ascorbic acid is found in potatoes, but by spring its amount decreases by 4 times. It must be remembered that during cooking, about 60% of ascorbic acid can be lost. Doubled the rate of ascorbic acid is necessary for pregnant and lactating mothers, the elderly.
Properties of vitamins of group D.
They take an active part in the exchange of phosphorus and calcium. It is vitamin D that stimulates growth, normalizes the functional state of the thyroid, goiter, parathyroid and gonads. Most vitamin D is found in the liver of marine fish, fish roe, butter, egg yolk, milk, and yeast. Vitamin D can also be a source of fortified fish oil..
Children, pregnant women, and lactating mothers daily need 500 international units (ME) of vitamin D. Vitamin D, found in plant and animal products, is biologically inactive. Its transformation into an active form occurs in the skin as a result of the influence of sunlight or after artificial irradiation with ultraviolet light.
Helps the absorption of vitamin C, protects it from oxidation. The need for ascorbic acid is reduced in the presence of vitamin R. Vitamin P is found in sufficient quantities in sweet red pepper, blackcurrant berries, citrus fruits, and rosehips. Vitamin P preparations are made from tea tree leaves, as well as from the green mass of buckwheat (rutin). An adult needs 35-50 mg of vitamin P per day.
It contributes to an increase in blood coagulability, is able to accelerate wound healing, and can have an analgesic and antibacterial effect. Bacteria synthesize this vitamin in the colon. Vitamin K is found in the green leaves of spinach and lettuce, in white cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, carrots, and mountain ash berries. This vitamin is not soluble in water, but is well soluble in fats. An adult needs 2 mg of vitamin K per day.
Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid).
There are part of most of the enzyme systems of the body that control tissue respiration. It is this vitamin that regulates carbohydrate, protein and water-salt metabolism, and also normalizes blood cholesterol, increases the acidity of gastric juice. Vitamin PP sources include liver, lean meat, yeast, nuts, legumes, buckwheat, and potatoes. A day, a person needs 20 mg of vitamin PP.
One of the most important elements in the prevention of premature aging. In sufficient quantities it is found in sunflower, cotton, corn, linseed oil, peas, beans, lentils, rye and wheat grains, rose hips, egg yolks. An adult needs 30 mg of vitamin E per day.
Vitamin H (Biotin).
It is able to favorably influence on carbohydrate and fat metabolism, on nervous tissue. Biotin is found in sufficient quantities in the liver, kidneys, egg yolk, yeast, fresh vegetables and grains of cereals and legumes. For an adult, 2 mg of biotin is required per day.