It is better to go on the road at dawn, it is easier to go in the morning, the body is less tired. In hot weather, most of the way will be covered in the morning coolness. In winter or in the off-season, you also need to get out early, when the snow has not yet begun to thaw, there is less avalanche danger and all movements are easier.
The order and intensity of movement on the route in the hiking tour.
If there is a group, the pace of movement is determined by the leader, focusing on the weakest. It is desirable that the weakest should go second, and one of the physically strong people who closes. Its main task is to ensure that no one gets lost, to help those lagging behind, to warn of danger. One by one you need to move in a dense forest, through a swamp, through a ford, on slopes fraught with rockfalls.
in front of the nose. When walking, they put the foot on the entire foot (not on the welt of the shoe and not on the toe), choosing as much as possible a flat horizontal platform on which the entire sole will fit. Try to step over individual bumps, logs, stones, without getting up on them.
On hard ground, place your toe on the ground, and then gently lower the heel. On soft ground, vice versa: first lower the heel, and then calmly step on the whole foot. Walk on grass like on solid ground. Raise your foot above the grass, otherwise it will rustle. Walk slowly on the water, without pulling out the body part immersed in water, moving with pressure so as not to splash water.
It is good for someone to keep written timekeeping when they got up in the morning, went on a route, passed some landmark or obstacle, how much time they spent on it, how much they stopped for a halt and went on. This will allow you to determine the distance and what the group is wasting time on (usually for long gatherings or long halts). Timing, like a diary with a brief description of the path, will provide an invaluable service later.
The intensity of movement and the associated energy costs are determined by the rate of movement. The table shows the four pace of motion slow, normal, accelerated and forced. The group leader can use these data in order to choose the right pace of movement and bring the group to a given goal..
|Pace||Horizontal movement, km / h||Ascent and descent vertically, m / h||The ratio of movement time and rest, min||Note|
|Delayed||2-3||200-400||40/20 or 45/15||At the beginning of the trip. With severe fatigue; when there are patients in the group.|
|Normal||4-5||300-500||50/10||In the normal state of the group.|
|Accelerated||6||400-600||50/10||With excellent condition of the group. If necessary, gain time on the slopes.|
|Forced||up to 8 and more||600 and more||Rest for 5-10 minutes if necessary.||In short areas where speed is required for safety reasons. In case of a possible violation of the specified period.|
The numbers given in the table are indicated for the path along the trails or slopes convenient for movement, along the flat surface of glaciers and firn fields at heights of up to 4,000 meters and with normal weight of backpacks. Deterioration of the quality of the path, excessive heaviness of the burden, movement at high altitudes, as well as insufficient acclimatization sharply reduce the pace of movement.
To calculate the speed of movement, you can use the following formula: a person walks in 1 hour as many kilometers as he takes steps in 3 seconds (with a step width of 0.83 cm). At an altitude of 2,500-3,500 meters above sea level, the speed decreases by about 25-30%, and at an altitude above 3,500 meters by 50-60%. In the mud, the speed decreases by 50%. When moving through a meadow with thorns and virgin soil with a dense cover of grass by 25%, in heavy rain and blizzard by 10-15%, and with a strong headwind by 50%.
Passing through the thicket, you should hold the branches so that they do not quilted along the face of the back. Moving through the forest follows a chain with an interval of 3-4 meters. The first should warn in a voice about dangerous places: a hole, a sticking out stump, a root, a slippery place, hidden gullies and so on. It is necessary to go along the route without a path, slowly, carefully, choosing the safest place. At this pace, anyone who comes across an obstacle will be less likely to fall and get injured. When moving in azimuth, it is recommended to look at the path as far as possible so as not to be in impassable thicket, surrounded by rubble, heavily overgrown, deep ravine, decay or swamp.