The conditions in which it is necessary to equip a resting place are very diverse, both in terms of climate, season and weather, and in relation to the terrain and time available for work. Therefore, buildings for different conditions should be different.
The choice of type of construction to provide recreation in the field.
In summer, in hot weather, buildings and their equipment should give the soldiers coolness, protect them from dust and heat. In winter – protect from cold and bad weather. In autumn and during rains – from dampness and rain. In the spring – from dampness and melt water, and the like. Woody areas for buildings can chop poles and stakes. In the steppe region, a tree is not always found, and for buildings you will have to use sod, reeds, grass, straw, etc..
It may happen that none of the types of buildings for recreation can not be accurately reproduced due to the lack of necessary materials. In this case, it is necessary to show initiative and resourcefulness and be able to combine various elements of buildings. For example, if a Uzemlian woman should have a roof made of poles, and there are no poles under her arms, but there are few boards and a large number of reeds, then the boards should be used only as a basis for the roof, and the entire roof should be covered with reeds.
The walls of buildings for recreation can also be made the most diverse. Of wattle, boards, turf and the like. For the equipment of stoves, tables, bunks, stove benches, hangers, pyramids for weapons, etc., various improvised materials can also be used. Therefore, in each case, it is necessary to adapt to the situation and choose the most suitable types of buildings and equip them, based on available materials.
When choosing the type of building for recreation, it is necessary to take into account the time available for work. So, if the unit is located on the spot for a short time, then you will have to build only tents or shelters from the wind for housing and be heated by bonfires. If the parking is long, then for the first time you can pitch tents, but immediately you need to start building dugouts with good, comfortable bunks and brick stoves.
The procedure for constructing tents from separate panels of raincoat tents, tents with walls, an insulated dugout tent, a round insulated tent for 24 people with a bonfire, tent winterization.
Tents of various types can be built quickly and simply from individual panels of raincoat tents. For example, a simple tent of four panels. So that the tent does not blow out, its ends can be closed with sheets folded in half. One of the end panels is fixed tightly, and the other with only one edge, so that it can be lifted for entry and exit.
To protect the tent from blowing from the sides, the lower edge of the side panels needs to be fixed tightly, and the other panel should be fixed with only one edge, so that it can also be lifted for entry and exit. In addition, it is necessary to secure the lower edge of the side panels with pegs and press with sods. It will also protect the tent from the sides. In rainy, damp weather, a groove for draining water should be torn around the tent.
In the tent shown in the figure above, you can only lie and sit, so it is inconvenient for a long stay. If you have to use tents for a long time, then it is better to make them raised. With walls of wattle or boards, or of double wattle with filling the gap between them with earth, and of bags with earth. In such tents, you can already arrange loungers raised above the ground, and stand without touching the head of the ceiling of the tent.
The order of construction of a common tent with walls.
So that water does not penetrate the seam on the ridge of the roof, it is better to make it slightly deflated, and in this case, support the tent with a nozzle from the pole. If the tents have to be made winter and for a long time, then they can be arranged from two rows of panels. With filling the gap between them with straw, hay, dry leaves, spruce branches, reeds, etc..
In dry weather (winter), the lower ends of the tents can be laid in a ditch and pressed with straw and ground. In the wet season, the ends of the tents are best placed on low walls. This will protect them from decay. The installation of insulated tents requires a large number of panels, why they should be done immediately for the whole unit. The area of the general panel turns out to be large and so that it does not sag, it should be laid on the base of poles or bars.
The procedure for building a heated tent-dugout.
Sublattices – longitudinal boards laid on rafters should not be used, since the panels near them will sag, water will accumulate in the troughs and the tent will get wet, and the straw between the panels of the tents will begin to rot. The end walls of such tents are best made from turf, from poles with ground powder, etc..
The order of construction of a round tent for 24 people with a bonfire.
The figure above shows how to build a round tent for 24 people. Such a tent is arranged very simply, does not require complex materials and, at the same time, it turns out quite warm, but requires continuous maintenance of the fire.
Based on materials from the book The simplest household and household buildings for troops in the field.