For use in food, you must first collect familiar plants. When collecting little-known plants, you should be very careful and make sure that this is exactly the species that can be eaten. If there is no such certainty, it is better not to use the plant at all. It is very important to observe this rule, as some poisonous plants resemble edible.
The rules for collecting edible wild plants, especially the collection of roots, tubers and bulbs.
It is necessary to strictly adhere to the guidelines on the forms of use of plants. And if it is recommended to use the plant only after pre-treatment, then you can’t eat it raw. It may contain harmful substances that are removed during processing..
, sauces, mashed potatoes, etc.) you can collect older plants. Seeds and fruits contain the greatest amount of nutrients during ripening, and the underground organs of plants after fruiting in the fall, during winter and early spring. Until the plants started to grow. After the vegetation begins, the nutrients of the roots and rhizomes are quickly consumed in the formation of green aerial parts of plants. Therefore, collecting them during this period does not make sense.
When collecting roots and rhizomes in a period when there are no characteristic above-ground parts, you should especially beware of poisonous plants. After all, it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish them by underground organs. In addition, after the death of the aerial parts of plants, it is often very difficult to find their underground organs. When collecting, it is not recommended to tear out plants with roots if only the aerial part is used, as this leads to their pollution. To collect prickly (cirsium) or burning (nettle) plants, it is advisable to use mittens. Strong, succulent plants are best cut with a knife.
Collected raw materials should not be packed tightly in bags or baskets. In particular, if they are not disassembled and processed immediately. With a dense stack of plants, still continuing their life activity, they quickly begin to heat up and spit. Their nutritional value is significantly reduced and most of the collected raw materials may become unusable. Especially significantly (by tens and hundreds of times), the content of vitamins decreases. A sign of spoilage is a darkening of greenery.
If plants need to be prepared for long-term storage, they should be dried using air or fire drying (in ovens or on them). The faster the plant is dried, the better the quality of the product is, the more vitamins and nutrients are stored. Succulent plants are difficult to dry, therefore, pickling or pickling is used in their respective containers. When drying the juicy parts of plants (including underground), it is recommended to cut them into parts. Moreover, the stems and roots are better cut along so that their inner part is exposed.
Features of the collection of roots, rhizomes and bulbs of edible wild plants.
The roots and rhizomes of plants, as well as tubers and bulbs located in the soil at a considerable depth, are collected using scoops, diggers, shovels or long knives. The dug out roots, tubers or bulbs should be immediately shaken off the ground, and then, before use, thoroughly washed and, if necessary, removed the bark or peel. Rhizomes of aquatic plants (cattail, water lilies, etc.), which are often located at a depth of more than 1 meter, are obtained from a boat or raft with the help of hooks, hoes or rakes. Underground parts, even juicy ones, if they are not badly damaged, can be stored for 2-3 days, and sometimes longer without significant changes..
Do not use damaged parts of plants for harvesting. Eaten by insects, darkened, covered with growths or spots of rust, plants are often infected with pathogenic microorganisms and can be poisonous. For example, cereal kernels affected by smut (black) or ergot (black-purple horns) are poisonous and should not be eaten. From the underground organs of plants, it is necessary to remove all parts that are corroded or rotten..
Damaged roots, bulbs and tubers (crushed, soaked) should also not be eaten, as their nutritional value is reduced and it is very difficult to remove dirt from them. The underground parts of the plant, if they are not supposed to be used, should be left in the ground, as some of them can give new plants. Before use, any part of the plant must be thoroughly cleaned of any litter, small insects and parts of foreign plants, the ingress of which is inevitable during mass collection. Then they must be washed from the ground and dust, and only after that can be eaten.
Based on materials on the pasture.