In the absence of artificial building material (polyethylene, fabric), it is easiest for victims of disaster in taiga and mountain taiga areas to shelter from the weather under the crown of a thick tree.
The simplest shelters for the victims of disaster in the taiga and woodlands, the construction of a canopy, hut, Adyghe house.
Moreover, it should be borne in mind that deciduous trees delay rainfall only by 15–20%, pine by 20–25, thick spruce by 60, and fir drops from its crown up to 70–80% of the precipitated moisture. In stormy weather, do not choose tall trees that protrude above the surface of the surrounding forest..
under a tree is a round hut. At a tree, branches are cut to the height of human growth. Vertical poles lean against the trunk, which are intertwined roundly with horizontal branches. On the resulting frame in several layers, the roofing material is strengthened – branches, spruce branches. Thus, a person sitting inside is protected by a double roof – a tree crown and an additional circular wall constructed by him.
To build the next shelter, one needs to find a broken tree, even better – spruce, fir, pine, uprooted. First of all, you need to make sure that the fallen tree is stable. Then chop off all the lower branches and lay them on the side on the branches facing the ground. A niche forms under the trunk, where 2-3 people can fit. After that, you need to chop off the branches sticking up, and also lay them on the sides, thereby increasing the thickness of the walls. The thicker and denser the spruce branches will lie, the steeper the ramps will turn out, the drier will be under the trunk.
The well-known taiga refuge is the simplest gable hut. Two bifurcated colas in the upper part are driven into the ground at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other. A horizontal pole, which plays the role of a ceiling beam, is laid on top of them. The construction technology of the hut is greatly simplified if the pole is laid on the branches of two closely spaced trees. Several vertical poles, the frame of future walls, are leaning against the ceiling beam from two sides at an angle of about 45-60 degrees. When they are harvested, the branches should be cut so that on one side there are 3-5 cm knots in the set.
On the poles of the frame, on the protruding knots are laid parallel to the ground rafters – 2-3-meter straight sticks. In turn, branches with dense foliage, spruce branches, tree bark are tiled to the rafters. Laying the “tiles” is made from the bottom up, so that each subsequent layer covers located below about half. If the laying is done on the contrary, that is, from top to bottom, then the water will drain into the hut. In cold and windy weather, it is advisable to braid the ends of the hut with additional branches, and cover the roof with a second layer of lapnik. If snow falls, the walls of the hut can be sprinkled with a 15-30-cm layer of snow.
To drain groundwater, a circular hut is dug round by a drainage groove with a tubule directed down the slope. Inside the hut, a lounger is made of twigs, spruce spruce branches, and dry foliage. On highly moistened soil you can build impromptu bunks. A single-pitched canopy for victims of disaster is constructed in the same way as a hut, only the roof consists of one half. If the canopy is closed from the sides, and from the roof to hang a piece of fabric or polyethylene to the ground, then inside it will become warmer.
Construction of the Adyghe house for the victims of disaster.
For its construction, two rows of flexible branches, cleared of foliage, must be dug into the ground parallel to each other. Bend their upper part towards each other, connect and twist. Through the arches obtained, it is necessary to skip horizontal branches, on which the spruce branches and leaves are tightly applied. If you find a place densely covered with bushes and uproot the ones that are left, leaving only those that can be used as beams, the builder’s task is simplified, since you don’t have to dig branches into the ground.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Natural Conditions.