If you dream up, then you can come up with a dozen different ways of cleaning dirty water in emergency or extreme conditions. For example, to make an elementary filter of adsorption action from a paper funnel, a piece of cotton wool or gauze and tablets of activated carbon available in a camping kit. Or birch coal from a fire. And you can make the simplest small-sized and wearable water filter in advance, at home. Then putting it in your survival kit.
The simplest small portable camping filter for cleaning and filtering water in the field.
A plastic cigar case is used as the body of this small-sized water filter. A hole is made in the bottom of the case. The case is filled with (from bottom to top) a layer of cotton 2 cm, a layer of crushed activated carbon 8 cm and again a layer of cotton 2 cm. On top of all these layers are pressed by a plate of permeable porous plastic, like that used in industrial water filters.
Activated carbon has a large number of microscopic pores and, due to this, absorbs (absorbs and absorbs) organic molecules from water and some inorganic substances. It is especially effective for filtering and purifying water from organics, which gives the water a yellowish color, smell, etc. and to remove heavy metals from water.
The practical application of a home-made small-sized filter for water treatment.
The procedure for using such a homemade portable filter is very simple. We lower the upper end of the case into the water of any natural reservoir or puddle, and then through the small hole in the bottom we absorb water into ourselves.
Properties and capabilities of activated carbon in the filtration of dirty water.
For reference, one tablet of activated carbon is able to filter about 0.9-1 liters of water with a cleaning efficiency of up to 85-90%. Then the activated carbon productivity drops sharply and the tablet needs to be changed. Thus, it is quite possible to calculate the total resource of a similar or other home-made small-sized filter. You should also pay attention to the following, the old carbon filter does not begin to clean, and filtered water becomes worse than the original one to pollute the water. This is due to the fact that dirt previously accumulated in it begins to be washed out of the sorbent, i.e., activated carbon.