The use of a bonfire for the manufacture of simple tools and weapons from wood and stone, firing of ceramic products, the manufacture of charcoal, for signaling smoke.

In an emergency or extreme situation, a fire can be used to make simple tools and wood weapons. Namely, for the hardening of wooden tips or the tips of tools and weapons, sharpened sticks. To do this, a dry and previously sharpened wooden object is placed in hot ash and, if the heat is not too strong, it is burned to a light brown color. After that, they point the point on the stone. 

The use of a bonfire for the manufacture of simple tools and weapons made of wood and stone, firing ceramic products, the manufacture of charcoal, for signaling smoke.

The most preferred form of the tip of the tools or weapons is an elongated three or tetrahedron. Before hardening, it is useful to impregnate the wood with any oil or grease with resin (gum), it is very good to take resinous pine roots for making tips.

The use of a bonfire for the manufacture of simple tools and weapons from wood and stone, firing of ceramic products, the manufacture of charcoal, for signaling smoke.

It is very convenient to harden point-shaped tips with the following method. The pre-sharpened point should be alternately applied with faces to a hot stone or slab, which should not be very hot so that the point has time to burn before burning.

Using a bonfire to facilitate the manufacture of implements and stone weapons.

Bonfires are also used to facilitate the manufacture of tools and weapons made of stone (silicon). To facilitate the receipt of the plate (flakes) from the stone, you must first put it in a fire. After such firing, the stone becomes much more obedient during processing. True, the strength of the product will decrease, which will somewhat limit its use. Then, putting the resulting stone plate (flake) on a solid base and hitting it with another stone from above, this plate is given the desired shape. For most products this will be enough. Finer work is to sharpen the edges of the product with multiple microscopic chips.

Bonfire firing.

For the needs of survival and the manufacture of weapons, the skill of manufacturing ceramic products may be useful. To do this, you need enough oily clay. If the clay is not oily enough, it is enriched. To do this, clay is bred in a large amount of water and a little defended. Sand and other large particles settle first. The liquid is drained, the precipitate is discarded. After some time, clay will settle too. Large particles of clay can be removed by drying it and sifting through a sieve. But it is better to look for clay that does not need such processing.

Clay is kneaded and molded from it various products. After that, the product is dried in the shade, then near the fire. After drying, burn. Even if clay is cracked during very slow drying, this may be due to shrinkage. In this case, they say that the clay is too oily. When kneading, it is necessary to add a filler to it: sand, cattail seeds, chopped straw, etc. After drying, the clay products are burned. In the simplest case, this is a bonfire, preferably in the form of a pit or a small stove, in a more complex form, muffle furnaces made of bricks or clay. The quality of firing in a muffle furnace is incomparably higher. After firing, the finished product cools slowly, preferably with a stove or a bonfire.

Making charcoal for heating, cooking, water purification, and use in makeshift filters.

Charcoal is obtained in special coal pits, at the bottom of which a fire is made and firewood is laid. Classic recipe: a small pit of arbitrary diameter breaks out and about 0.7 meters deep. The bottom is well compacted and a small bonfire is kindled on it. A horizontal layer of wooden sticks is laid over the bonfire with a length equal to the diameter of the pit, with wide gaps between them..

When they flare up, they arrange the next layer above them, laying it crosswise with the previous one and leaving the same gaps. As it accelerates, it is necessary to lay other layers in the same way until the pit is filled. The next layer is laid only after the flame covers the previous one. Then we lay thicker, slightly wet branches without gaps. At the end, the pit is covered with moist earth, forming a kind of roof. After 5-6 hours, the pit can be excavated. It will be filled with large, black coal.

The use of bonfires for signaling with light, black and white smoke.

When burning, a bonfire forms light and smoke. In the dark, for the transmission of messages, campfire light is used, and in bright smoke. A lot of light gives a high bonfire (hut, trellis, well) made of dry, preferably resinous branches. If a bonfire is used to transmit long messages with a special flashing code, then it becomes small, and the light of its flame is closed from the observer by some kind of improvised screen. There should be no objects reflecting light behind the fire. The screen is removed and returned in accordance with the code.

During the day, bonfire fire is poorly visible and distress signals are transmitted mainly by smoke. To obtain white smoke, a burning fire is covered with last year’s leaves, forest land, peat, moss, straw, damp branches. Black smoke is obtained by throwing rubber, ruberoid, pieces of bitumen, polystyrene, plexiglass, a piece of cloth or paper soaked in diesel fuel or oil into a fire. Unfortunately, you won’t be able to send a Morse code message to smoke, therefore, for signaling with smoke, bonfires are usually laid out in a different order so that they form previously agreed signals or figures.

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