The detection range of pyrotechnic distress signals in many ways, sometimes to a decisive extent, depends on the place of their supply. You can even manage to launch even the most powerful signal rocket in such a place and at such a time that no one will ever see distress signals. First of all, you need to take into account the time of day and weather conditions..
Use of pyrotechnic distress alerts, maritime international distress alerts, smoke and color distress alerts.
A bright star in the sky during the day is almost invisible, while at night it attracts attention for many kilometers. Therefore, in the daytime it is better to use distress smoke signals, saving a signal rocket for darkness. In the same way, a missile launched into a cloud accidentally floating above your head can disappear without any benefit. Therefore, if possible, postpone the distress signal for a few seconds, wait for the clouds to pass, or try to get into the cloud-free area of the sky.
polar and brown bears, wolves, jackals, etc..
Household distress equipment.
Although with a stretch, aerosol cans can be considered the simplest pyrotechnic signaling means. Any from hairspray and other cosmetic to repellents. An aerosol jet discharged from a canister, if passed through a flame of a match or a lighter, flashes a bright, several tens of centimeters long torch, distinguishable from the air for several kilometers. The aerosol should be released by short, no more than 1 2 seconds, presses with 2 5 second pauses. With longer burning of the aerosol jet, the spray can explode in the hands.
If you need to give a long signal, the can should be dug in the ground, put a flat stone on the start button or pull it with an elastic band passed through the bottom, put a small torch in the path of the jet and move a few meters to the side. And if you recall children’s leprosy, it is possible from the sulfur heads of matches, magnesium, cerium and other things. to make various bombs, crackers, sparklers and similar home-made, of dubious quality, but nevertheless pyrotechnic light and sound signaling devices. Their manufacture and use are fraught with a certain risk, so I do not give a specific recipe here. Those who were fond of such chemistry before, I think, will be able to use children’s skills no longer for entertainment, but for business.
Maritime international distress signals.
Orange smoke puff release.
Flames on a ship, for example from a burning tar barrel.
Rockets or grenades that throw red stars fired singly at short intervals.
Red parachute rocket or red raised eye.
NC (NC) flag signal according to the International Code of Signals.
Signal consisting of a square flag with a ball above or below it.
Slow, repeated raising and lowering of arms extended to the sides.
Cannon shots, or explosions produced at intervals of about one minute, or continuous sound produced by any apparatus for delivering foggy signals.
SOS distress signal transmitted by wireless or other signaling system, or the word “meyday” spoken by radiotelephone.
All these signals have one single value known to sailors around the world. I suffer distress, I need help.
Emergency smoke and color distress signals.
These include (except for the daily signal PSND) various smoke bombs and firecrackers, most often used in the sea. Such checkers are triggered after pulling out the ignition cord and burn, emitting orange smoke, from 1 minute (manual checker) to 4 minutes (floating checker). The smoke buoy used in the fleets has a length of 253 mm, a diameter of 80 mm and a weight of 820 g. The estimated range of visibility of the smoke signal lasting 3 minutes is one nautical mile. The checker is driven by pulling the ignition cord.
There are other varieties of smoke bombs. Up to those with which one person simply can not cope. For example, a large smoke signal bomb has a length of 74 cm, a diameter of 21 cm and a weight of 32 kg. This giant smoke burns for 8 minutes, and its signal is visible for 20 km. In addition to color and smoke distress signals, there are special dyes that, when dissolved in water, create a large, color, visible spot from afar. These include, for example, uranium, intended for use in the sea or in vast freshwater bodies..
Upon contact with water, uranine spreads over the surface, forming a huge spot of intense green-emerald color (if it got into cold water) or orange (if it was in warm water). The dye remains noticeable for about 4–6 hours in calm water and only 2–3 hours when agitated. To some extent, various orange banners, life rafts and boat awnings, clothes and tents in bright red colors can serve as color distress signals.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.