If writers repeatedly spoke about hurricanes in marine and adventure literature, then for some reason they ignored a related phenomenon – tornadoes, or tornadoes. But they are much more spectacular and mysterious. Generated by small vortices (small hurricanes), outwardly tornadoes or tornadoes look like huge rotating funnels that are pulled out of the cloud. In this case, the worst happens at the place of their contact with the ground.
Tornadoes and tornadoes, essence, characteristics, destructive power, what to do before, during and after the tornado or tornado.
The cruelty and specificity of the destructiveness of this phenomenon in a certain sense is unprecedented. First of all, it should be noted that tornadoes are primarily a wall of rain, rolled into a pipe (trunk) with thin walls, but not wind, which spins at a speed of up to 500 km / h.
In the event of a violation of the integrity of the pipe when it encounters any obstacle, air enters the trunk. The pressure difference leads to the formation of a secondary air flow around it, rapidly rotating at a speed of 1200 km / h and higher up to supersonic values.
, rain and hail.
For the emergence of a deadly funnel, a thundercloud is certainly required, but not any. Most often this happens on the border of fronts between warm and cold air masses. Humanity is not yet able to predict tornadoes or tornadoes, so they always form suddenly.
The essence of a tornado or tornado.
In general, the tornado’s existence is quite short. It disappears when the cold and warm air masses mix. True, just as in the case of hurricanes, in this relatively short period they manage to do troubles and can cause huge destruction.
I must say that far from all the secrets in this natural phenomenon are revealed. For example, even the question about the nature of the funnel, scientists will answer differently depending on their specialization. The explanation given at the beginning will be sufficient for a meteorologist who sees in the tornado a unique type of precipitation.
However, other scientists will pay attention first of all to the amazing structure of the vortex with the water inner and outer air layers, in which a paradoxical difference in speeds and densities is recorded. Still others will describe tornadoes as a huge gravitational-thermal mechanism of colossal power. Where flows are formed and maintained due to the phase transition of water from a liquid to a solid state.
In this system, heat is released by water, which is captured by tornadoes from any natural reservoir. Heat is released in the upper layers of the troposphere. In addition, it would be interesting to know what forces give the walls of the tornado such an intense rotation and great destructive potential. Where does he get so much energy, and also why tornadoes are characterized by stability.
Getting answers to these questions is not only difficult in terms of cognition, but also elementarily dangerous. The element will simply destroy the measuring equipment and the observer. Therefore, when the tornado approaches, it becomes not up to measurements, but the little that is still known about the structure of the funnel was learned from eyewitness accounts, over which the tornado passed, taking off from the ground, and who saw that in section it looked like a hollow cylinder. Lightnings sparkle inside him and a loud roar and buzzing are heard.
Characteristics of a tornado or tornado.
Little is known about the characteristics of the phenomenon..
The height of the visible part ranges from 10 meters to 2 km.
At the ground, the diameter of the funnel can be 1 meter or 2 km, and at the junction with the cloud – 1-2 km.
The rotation speed of the layers ranges from 20 to 500 m / s.
Their thickness is from 3 meters or more.
Life time – from 1 minute to 5 hours.
The overcome distance – from 10 meters to 500 km.
Destruction area – from 10 m2 to 400 km2.
The largest weight of the raised objects is about 300 tons.
The highest speed on earth – 150 km / h.
As mentioned above, first a thundercloud forms. Then a trunk appears from there, which stretches to the ground, where a funnel of dust or water also forms, growing up. The first funnel enters into it and a monolithic pillar is obtained, the narrowest point of which is approximately in the middle. One cloud can “spawn” several such funnels.
Inside the tornado, the air rises in a spiral, while nearby it drops, which leads to the closure of the vortex. And at high speeds, a centrifugal force appears and the pressure in the tornado decreases. Thus, the effect of a vacuum cleaner arises and everything that gets in the way is sucked into the vortex system.
These are the classic notions of a tornado or tornado as an air whirlwind. In addition to several other similar theories that differ in nuances, there are completely different versions. It was found that the place where the funnel appears, no matter whether it is a separate cloud or a thunderstorm, is a zone of electrical activity.
On some photos and videos, tornadoes and tornadoes differ in amazing forms, for example, L-shaped, which is difficult to explain from the standpoint of the theory of vortices. In addition, there is a photo showing a board broken by a straw caught in a tornado. For this to happen, she would need to accelerate at several speeds of sound, but according to the accepted theory, the speed of a vortex cannot be greater than the speed of sound. Otherwise, it is as if light were traveling at a speed exceeding the speed of light.
Tornado and tornado speeds.
I must say that the speeds in the tornado were not directly measured, and this is the primary task of future research. However, nothing contradicts the fact that the excess of the speed of sound in a tornado is considered quite possible. There is abundant evidence of the passage of fine pebbles through glass without any other damage to the material in the area of the hole. There are many confirmed cases of wooden boards breaking through walls made of wood, other boards, trees or iron sheets.
The electrical nature of tornadoes and tornadoes.
In addition, off incandescent lamps light up when a tornado passes nearby, which indicates the presence of a strong alternating magnetic field. If the photo or video was taken in good conditions, that is, there is no dust, dirt, raindrops, sun glare and flare, you can clearly see the ideal spinning thin cone with a peak resting on the ground and equal angles to the right and left of the vertical midline in its center.
It is also seen that the trunk has a tubular structure with thin walls, and this is very similar to the lightning channel. In this regard, the theory was born that tornadoes (tornadoes) are a single electric discharge – a manifestation of atmospheric electricity.
Inside the trunk, ball lightning and light phenomena were often seen. In 1968, they were well described by American researchers B. Vonnengut and J. Meyer:
“Balls of fire … Lightnings in the funnel … Yellowish, bright surface of the funnel … Continuous radiance … Column of fire … Luminous clouds … Greenish luster … Luminous column … Luster in the shape of a ring … Bright luminous cloud of flame color … Rotating stripe of dark blue color … Pale -blue foggy stripes … Brick-red radiance … Rotating light wheel … Exploding fireballs … Fiery stream … Glowing spots … “
If tornadoes and tornadoes really have an electrical nature, then electric charges are transported through a funnel from a charged region in the cloud. Since in this case the tornado has an electromagnetic nature, it can easily exceed the speed of sound and accelerate various objects to the same speed. Moreover, this vortex, when falling into a well, for some reason cannot get out of it. It is unlikely that this would be difficult for an atmospheric phenomenon..
The destructive power of tornado and tornado.
The pressure drops between the outer and inner parts of the vortex are so significant that houses explode in the literal sense, kerosene jumps out of kerosene lamps, naked hens, plucked by a tornado, run around the yards. This pattern is often observed in North America, where tornadoes and tornadoes like to be especially.
This natural disaster works amazingly cleanly. For example, horses with shafts disappear, and the cart in which they were harnessed remains with the farmer. Such a sharp boundary could just be explained by the huge, supersonic speed of the vortex. In 1953, a tornado was observed near Rostov, which in one place pulled a pillowcase off a pillow, and in another lifted a car frame weighing 1 ton.
Nothing is known about the limit of the possibilities of the tornado with respect to the mass and volume of objects raised and drawn into the tornado. For example, once in Canada, he “drank” about 500 thousand tons of water from a lake, lowering the reservoir level by 60 cm. Most likely, this is far from the limit.
Form of tornado and tornado.
The form of tornadoes is very diverse. Dense eddies in the form of a bent knee or similar to a funnel usually come across. Sometimes there are tornadoes resembling a snake. That is narrow and curved in several places. In any case, they cannot be confused with any other phenomenon..
Maximum destruction is produced by vague tornadoes of very large sizes, which are similar to clouds moving on the ground. And their width can reach several hundred kilometers. Even more dangerous if there is a whole group of such tornadoes. They may well destroy the city.
Life span of a tornado and tornado.
For the most part, the life of tornadoes is short and periods of youth, maturity and old age can be distinguished in it. For example, at 16.00 a thundercloud began to approach the city, from which a ledge began to separate. After 5 minutes, the trunk grew and disappeared from sight. Its presence is noticeable in the mass of raised dust and torn roofs.
Another 10 minutes, and the tornado completed its education, reaching the peak of its strength and lifting entire buildings into the air. 10 minutes passed and there was silence. However, not all tornadoes are so hasty. Some manage to overcome several hundred kilometers in a few hours.
Invisible, water and fire tornadoes and tornadoes.
Sometimes there are such types of atmospheric vortices, such as:
Invisible tornadoes (usually at the initial stage). They appear only when they hit the ground or sand..
Water tornadoes (capture water).
Fiery tornadoes. Occur during volcanic eruptions, during a fire or explosion.
In the case of fiery vortices, they are not drawn from top to bottom, but from bottom to top, and are usually formed from the merger of several fires into a single large fire. The air temperature above it increases, and the density decreases, and it rises. At the same time, cold air enters the fire from below (oxygen leaks), which also heats up.
As a result, a centripetal movement of jets of flame occurs, which are twisted counterclockwise to a height of 5 km. In this case, the plasma velocity is comparable to the velocities in a hurricane, and the temperature is about 600 degrees. Everything that is drawn into the fire from the wind formed around it burns and melts. This continues until everything within range of the fire burns out..
What to do when a tornado or tornado threatens.
Before such natural disasters, a storm warning should be issued. Once it is received, it is recommended that certain actions be taken to minimize possible negative consequences. First of all, they carefully close and additionally strengthen doors and windows.
Further, it does not hurt to put it in one place (for example, in a backpack):
Food for a couple of days.
Required documents and money.
Then they shut off the gas and water supply, turn off the electricity. From the balconies or from the courtyards are brought into the room those objects that can be carried away by air currents. Since not all buildings are built taking into account resistance to tornadoes and hurricanes, it is better to wait out the elements in stronger buildings or in special shelters. In a private house it makes sense to settle in the most durable and spacious part of it, and if possible in the basement.
In the event of a storm warning, children are sent home from childcare facilities in advance. If there is too little time between the danger message and the tornado, then they are placed in basements or in the central part of buildings.
What to do during a tornado, tornado or hurricane.
During a tornado or tornado, you should especially beware of injuries from broken glass. With strong gusts of wind, you need to stand close to the wall as far as possible from the windows. As protection, you can use strong furniture, climb under the bed, for example. Or hide in a corner and cover yourself with an open door. From the point of view of safety during tornadoes and hurricanes, basements and internal premises of the first floor are most attractive. Of course, if there is no possibility of flooding.
If a tornado, tornado or hurricane is found on the street, it is important not to come close to buildings, tall poles, trees and other towering and not very stable objects, as well as electrical wires. Under the threat of death, it is forbidden to be on bridges and other similar artificial structures. It’s better to climb under the bridge, reinforced concrete structure. Or find some other reliable shelter.
Suitable metro, pedestrian crossings, cellars, cellars and even a regular pit or ravine. In no case can you climb onto the roof. As well as in the attic. To protect yourself from flying debris, you can use improvised tools such as plywood, boards, metal shields, etc..
When traveling on a plain on a car at the time of the approach of a tornado, tornado or hurricane, you should stop, turn it off, but do not go out, as best as possible to lock the doors and windows. On the contrary, it is necessary to immediately leave public transport and look for a suitable place for shelter.
In any case, if it falls into tornadoes, a tornado or a hurricane in an open or elevated place, it must be quickly abandoned. Heading for a shelter that could extinguish the strength of the wind. Do not leave the shelter as soon as the wind subsides, as soon it can resume.
What to do at the end of a tornado, tornado or hurricane.
If it’s already clear that the tornado, tornado or hurricane is over, before going out you need to look around for possible overhanging objects, structural elements, dangling wires, sniff – maybe a gas leak has occurred. Until this is precisely determined, the fire cannot be ignited. Damaged buildings are best avoided, as they may collapse..