Toxoplasmosis is a severe natural focal disease caused by a simple unicellular microorganism – gondi toxoplasma. Toxoplasmas are intracellular parasites with a complex development cycle. The intermediate hosts of this parasite are many wild animals: saigas, wild boars, hares, badgers, ferrets, weasels, Arctic foxes, raccoon dogs, foxes, wolves, Korsaki, chipmunks, ground squirrels, groundhogs, muskrats and many others.
Birds can also be intermediate hosts of toxoplasma. Among many species of birds susceptible to toxoplasmosis, there are also hunting species: capercaillie, partridge, quail, wild pigeons.
Toxoplasmosis, severe natural focal disease, symptoms, first aid and treatment methods, prevention.
In the cells of an intermediate host, parasites multiply by longitudinal division. Inside the toxoplasma cells form clusters – pseudocysts. In the case of a chronic disease, pseudocysts can become coated, forming a real cyst. After maturation, the cyst is destroyed. Young parasites emerge from it, which, when drilling cell walls, enter new cells.
, which are the ultimate host of toxoplasma.
In the mucous membrane of the intestines of cats, toxoplasmas form the so-called oocysts, which are highly stable in the environment and provide a wide spread of invasion.
In animals, the latent period of the disease lasts 5-10 days. After that, the temperature rises sharply in animals. Their behavior is changing. Disorders of coordination of movements, shortness of breath, refusal of food are noted. There are paralysis of the hind limbs, vomiting, diarrhea with an admixture of blood, conjunctivitis. Some sick animals die in 15-25 days.
In surviving animals, toxoplasmosis becomes chronic, they have relapses of the disease. The corpses of animals killed by toxoplasmosis are dehydrated. The coat of the back of the body is tousled, moist and contaminated with secretions. Muscles are flabby, intermuscular hemorrhages are recorded in the posterior region. The lymph nodes of the body are enlarged and contain muddy lymph.
At autopsy, foci of inflammation are found in the lungs – nodules of a yellowish-gray color. The muscle of the heart is flabby. The liver is spotty clay. In it and in the spleen, foci of inflammation are noted. In the cortical layer of the kidneys, nodules can be found surrounded by an intense pink rim. This is the most characteristic sign of the disease. The mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine is inflamed. Numerous hemorrhages are visible on it. There is a lot of mucus in the stomach and intestines.
The latent period of the disease of toxoplasmosis in wild birds.
In wild birds, the latent period of the disease lasts from 5 to 45 days. Sick birds, like animals, refuse to feed. They have a disturbed gait. Feathers of sick birds are disheveled and contaminated with secretions. Birds surviving after an acute period of illness become chronically ill.
In the brain, liver, kidneys and muscle tissue they form pseudocysts of toxoplasmas, filled with parasites. At autopsy, approximately the same changes are observed in the internal organs of birds as in animals. The meat of sick birds is very lean.
The spread of toxoplasmosis.
Toxoplasmosis is common almost all over the world. Natural and economic foci of toxoplasmosis exist almost everywhere. Examination of farm animals revealed a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle and small cattle, reindeer, pigs, poultry and many other synanthropic and domestic animals.
Human infection with toxoplasmosis, symptoms and course of the disease.
Human infection occurs mainly by food and contact. The food route is realized by eating insufficiently thermally processed meat and domestic animals or as a result of introducing an infection into the mouth with dirty hands while working with animal carcasses.
By contact, people become infected when skinning and butchering wild animals and birds or slaughtered pets. In this case, toxoplasma can be introduced into the body through damaged skin..
Once in the human body, toxoplasma through the walls of the small intestine penetrate the blood and with its current are introduced into various organs (liver, myocardium, brain, eyes, muscles). In these organs, inflammatory foci are formed. Distinguish between acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis. With the latter, infection of the fetus occurs in the womb, sick with a chronic or latent form of toxoplasmosis.
Acquired toxoplasmosis can occur in people in acute, chronic and latent forms. The acute form is recorded, quite rarely. It occurs either with lesions of the nervous system, or with a typhoid-like picture of the symptoms of the disease. In the first case, severe headache, vomiting, convulsions, paralysis are noted. In the second, patients have fever, spotty-nodular rash, enlarged liver and spleen.
Perhaps a mixed course of the acute form of infection, when all the symptoms of the disease appear immediately. In the chronic form, symptoms of general intoxication are noted (weakness, adynamia, headache, etc.). Patients experience shortness of breath, pain in the heart, interruptions in its work. The mesenteric lymph nodes become inflamed, which causes abdominal pain. Often noted liver damage. The latent (latent) form is asymptomatic. It practically does not exacerbate.
The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the symptoms of the disease and laboratory diagnostic methods. For treatment, sulfadimezin and chloridine are used. Treatment is carried out in three courses prescribed by a doctor.
Sanitary and hygiene measures to prevent toxoplasmosis.
Sanitary and hygienic measures to prevent toxoplasmosis are the same as other infections that are transmitted by food and contact routes. Toxoplasma resistance to heating is low. They die in skeletal muscle at a temperature of 70 degrees in 15 minutes. In the carcasses and organs of dead animals, parasites remain at a temperature of 15-20 degrees for up to two days, and 10-15 days live in frozen carcasses.
In the wild, it is very difficult to identify and test animals with toxoplasmosis. Sick animals and birds with suspected toxoplasmosis must be shot. Small animals should be delivered to a veterinary station for dissection and laboratory analysis. The autopsy of large animals suspicious of toxoplasmosis should be carried out by a veterinarian. The bodies of such animals must be burned..
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..