Traces of animals and birds, how to learn to decipher the tracks of animals and birds, an encyclopedic guide-determinant.

and reptiles. It is fascinatingly told about how to learn to decipher traces in order to find out the details of biology, lifestyle and behavior of animals in different situations. The book will be useful for specialists in hunting, rangers, hunters, biologists, as well as naturalists, trackers and nature lovers.

Everyone who happens to be in a forest or other corner of nature, in a field, steppe, in the mountains, on the sea or river banks, even with minimal attention, can detect animal tracks in the sand or mud, and in the winter – in the snow. Many consider only footprints or paths trodden by animals as traces, but for a pathfinder, traces are all that the animal left at its place of residence.

It’s the same as material evidence for the forensic scientist. This is crushed or bitten grass, and shells from eaten nuts, and fruits damaged by teeth or beaks. The traces of the activities of predators can be considered the remains of their victims. The litter found at the place of feeding or rest is also a peculiar trace.

The burrows and lodges of animals, nests and holes of birds are interesting to the tracker, who seeks to learn as much as possible about the life of wild animals. Even a feather that has been lost by a bird or a piece of wool caught in a thorn can tell the experienced eye a lot. What can these or other tracks tell??

From the paw prints or the chain of tracks, an attentive hunter or pathfinder learns not only about which animal left this track.

Often, they can determine the sex, age, and sometimes the physical condition of the animal that left a trace. Studying the eating and other footprints at feeding places, you can find out what the animal was eating, whether it is prospering or in poverty, was forced to use non-food.

The pathfinder can learn a lot about a lot from the litter of a bird or beast. Often by its appearance it is possible to determine who it belongs to, and the size of its individual fragments will indicate the sex and age of the animal. So, thick olive-green “sausages”, consisting of long pine needles, leave a capercaillie in the winter at the place of their feeding, and a capercaillie is almost the same, but thinner and smaller..

It is not difficult to distinguish the litter of adult geese from the litter of goslings fed immediately. The latter has a smaller “caliber”. In a snowless season, when traces of paws on the ground are invisible, the found litter will indicate the location of the animal. And the contents of the litter will reliably tell you what a particular animal was eating.

Of even greater interest are bird riddles in which feathers, wool and bones of birds and animals are well preserved, scales of fish and reptiles, large fragments of insects and other invertebrates, plant seeds and shells of eaten fruits.

It is very useful for a hunter or naturalist to know what type of bird a feather belongs to that was lost during molting or under other circumstances. It’s easy to recognize many birds even by individual feathers, but the more feathers are left in place, the easier it is to recognize their owners, of course..

Contents of the book Traces of animals and birds.

INTRODUCTION.

What animal tracks can tell.
Footprints and track tracks.
Feathers of birds and wool of animals.
Puzzles.
Jacks.

PART I. MAMMALS.

Insectivore Detachment (Insectivora).

Family hedgehogs (Erinaceidae).
Mole family (Talpidae).
Shrew families (Soricidae).

Bat Order (Chiroptera).

Family of ordinary bats (Vespertilionidae).
Horseshoe family (Rhinolophidae).

Predatory Squad (Carnivora).

Wolf family (Canidae).
Bear family (Ursidae).
Families of Hyenas (Hysenidae).
Raccoon Family (Procyonidae).
Kunih family (Mustelidae).
Feline Families (Felidae).

Pinnipedia (Pinnipedia).

Walrus family (Odobenidae).
Eared Seal Family (Otariidae).

Order of artiodactyls (Perissodactyla).

Horse family (Equidae).

Corpus callosum squad (Tylopoda).

Camel family (Camelidae).

Artiodactyl squad (Artuodactyla).

Pork Family (Suidae).
Deer family (Cervidae).
Families of bovids (Bovidae).

Order rabbit-like (Lagomorpha).

Hare family (Leporidae).
The family of food (Lagomyidae).

Rodent Squad (Rodentia).

Porcupine family.
Beaver Family (Castoridae).
Families of Nutria (Myocastoridae).
Squirrel Family (Sciuridae).
Flying family (Pteromyidae).
Sonia families (Gliridae).
Jerboa family.
Mushovy family (Zapodidae).
Mouse families (Muridae).
Gerbillidae family.
Hamster Family (Cricetidae).
Family of mole rats (Spalacidae).

PART II BIRDS.

Detachment Loon (Gaviiformes).

Loon Family (Gaviidae).

Podicipediformes order.

Grebe family (Podicipedidae).

Order petrel-shaped, or tubular-nosed (Procellariiformes).

Petrel family (Procellariidae).

Pelican-like order (Pelecaniformes).

Pelican family (Pelecanidae).
Cormorant family (Phalacrocoracidae).
Families of booby (Sulidae).

Order Ciconiiformes or Ciconiiformes.

Heron family (Ardeidae).
The ibis family (Ibididae).
Stork families (Ciconiidae).

Flamingo Squad (Phoenicopteriformes).

Family flaming (Phoenicopteridae).

Crane Squad (Grusformes).

Crane family (Gruidae).
Family of bustard (Otididae).

Anseriformes order.

Duck family (Anatidae).

Order Falconiformes, or birds of prey (Falconiformes).

Skopina family (Pandionidae).
The hawk family (Accipitridae).
Families falcon (Falconidae).

Order Chicken-like (Galliformes).

Grouse family (Tetraonidae).
Pheasant Family (Phasinidae).
Cowgirl Families (Rallinidae).
Three-thistle family (Turnicidae).

Charadriiformes order.

Family avdotkovye (Burhinidae).
Family of shingles.
Charadriidae families.
Shiloklyuvy family (Recurvirostridae).
Snipe family.
Magpie family (Haemotopodidae).
The family of finfish (Phalaropididae).
Gull family (Laridae).
Families of Cracow (Sternidae).
Family Skuas (Stercorariidae).
The family of purebred (Alcidae).

Pigeon Squad (Columbiformes).

Squash family (Pterocletidae).
Pigeon Family (Columbidae).

Goat-like squad (Caprimulgiformes).

The family of real goats (Caprinulgidae).

Cuckoo-like squad (Cuculiformes).

Cuckoo family (Cuculidae).

Order Owls (Stringiformes).

Real Owl Family (Stringidae).
Barn Owl Family (Tytonidae).

Swift-like squad (Apodiformes).

Swift family (Apodidae).

Squad of Rakseobraznye (Coraciiformes).

Kingfisher Family (Halcyonidae).
Family of bee-eater (Meropidae).
Blue-crown families (Coraciidae).

Udode-like squad (Upupiformes).

Udovid family (Upupidae).

Woodpecker Squad (Piciformes).

Real Woodpecker Family (Picidae).

Passeriformes order.

Lark family (Alaudidae).
Family Swallow (Hirundinidae).
Wagtail families (Motacillidae).
Shrike family (Laniidae).
Family of bastards (Bombycillidae).
Families of the Dipper (Cinclidae).
Wren family (Troglodytidae).
Family of Curls (Prunellidae).
Thrush families (Turdidae).
Thick-billed Tit Family (Paradoxornithidae).
Familia family (Sylviidae).
Porcupine family (Regulidae).
Flycatcher family (Muscicapidae).
Family Tit (Paridae).
Nuthatch families (Sittidae).
The family of food (Certhiidae).
Oatmeal Family (Emberizidae).
Reel families (Gringillidae).
Weaver family (Ploccidae).
Starling family (Sturnidae).
Family Orioles (Oriolidae).
The Corvidae family.

PART III OTHER RESIDENTS OF NATURE.

Amphibians.
Squad tailless.
Tailed Squad (Caudata).
Reptiles.
Squamata Squamata.
Turtle Squad (Testudines).

CONCLUSION.

ATTACHMENT.

List of animal species described in the book.

The electronic version of this book was created for review only on the local computer. By downloading the file, you take full responsibility for its further use and distribution. By downloading the book, you agree to these statements.

The implementation of this e-book for profit is illegal and prohibited. For questions about purchasing this book, contact the legal publishers or their representatives directly..

Traces of animals and birds, how to learn to decipher the tracks of animals and birds, an encyclopedic guide-determinant

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