person, for transportation, carrying goods, movement, protection of herds, delivery of reports and for other purposes. In all these cases, dogs of various breeds are suitable – all types of shepherd dogs, huskies, Doberman pinschers, airedale terriers, boxers, collies and others. Outbred dogs are also successfully used for guarding herds, picking, transportation of goods..
When selecting a dog for a particular type of work, it is mainly taken into account that it has the corresponding sufficiently developed natural qualities. By type of work, it is customary to divide dogs into the following categories: search dogs, guard dogs, guard dogs, sled dogs, shepherds, dogs and military dogs.
Search dogs are used to protect state borders, to combat crime, to protect property. Search dogs should be large, physically strong, with a well-developed instinct, sharp eyesight and sharp hearing, vicious enough, well trained.
Guard and guard service dogs.
Guard dogs are used to protect factories and plants, warehouses, railway structures, office buildings, stockyards, herds, MTS, gas storages, shops. Sentry dogs notify the guards and guards by barking that outsiders are approaching the guarded object, and if an outsider enters the guard area, they fight and detain him.
Guard dogs must be strong, with good hearing, vicious enough, with a suitable coat for the climate. Watchdog dogs are given to help guard. The guard dog accompanying the guard is on a leash. By pulling the leash, it notifies the guard about the appearance of strangers in the protected area, and if necessary, is used by the guard to protect against attack or to prosecute and detain persons who entered the protected area.
If necessary, the dog is allowed to search the territory to find hidden people or hidden objects, so the guard service dogs must have a flair for the wanted dog.
Most suitable for riding service are huskies and other northern breeds of dogs. Riding dog breeding is an original achievement of the culture of the peoples of the north. The enormous length of the Far North, the dispersed population, the dependence of success in hunting on the ability to overcome large spaces covered with snow or ice, made dog breeding in the past the main mode of transport on which the existence of the population depended.
The average load per dog in a sled during transportation of goods is determined at 40-50 kg at a speed of 6-7 km / h and with a total daily mileage of 70-80 km. When driving light during the day, you can drive up to 150-200 km at a speed of 15-20 km / h. The basic requirements for a sled dog are: physical strength, endurance, slow fatigability, agility and high adaptability to the harsh conditions of the north. Usually in most areas of the north, teams of 10-12 dogs are used..
In those cases where the delivery of goods by conventional means (nanart) is difficult, dogs are successfully used to carry goods. The weight of the load that the dog can carry reaches 12 kg, depending on the size of the dog, its physical condition and location. Dogs work flawlessly at different times of the year and days, in different settings, at distances of several kilometers, moving at a speed of 1 km in 5-7 minutes.
Shepherd dogs are widely used as indispensable assistants in managing the herd, protecting it, and tracing backward and lost animals. Shepherd dogs help the shepherd to keep the herd in a certain area, drive the animals lagging behind and leaving to the side, guard their passages. At the same time, a shepherd dog helps protect the fields from cattle damage.
In Central Asia, Central Asian Shepherd Dogs have long been used to protect herds from predators. The constant struggle with predators made this dog vicious and fearless. The Caucasian Shepherd Dog, a powerful and vicious dog, protects herds of animals well and is widespread in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia. In the north, Nenets huskies are used for grazing pastures.
Communication dogs serve to deliver reports, orders and other documents between two moving or fixed posts at a distance of 3-5 km, overcoming a distance of 1 km in 3-5 minutes. With skillful use, dogs can completely replace messengers, reducing by 3-4 times the time normally spent by messengers to deliver documents.
Contents of the guide Training for service dogs, basics of training and training dogs.
Table of contents.
Origin. Anatomy and physiology. Exterior and breeds of service dogs.
Chapter I. Service dog breeding (brief historical background). V.V. Rylov.
Chapter II Origin, exterior and breed of service dogs. A.P. Mazover.
1. The origin of dogs.
2. The exterior of the dogs.
3. Dog breeds.
Caucasian Shepherd Dog.
Central asian shepherd dog.
East European Shepherd.
South Russian Shepherd Dog.
Russian hunting husky.
West Siberian hunting husky.
East Siberian hunting husky.
Russian-Finnish hunting husky.
Northeast sled dog.
Nenets shepherd like.
Chapter III. Anatomy and physiology of a dog. K.S. Stogov.
1. General information about the structure and functions of the dog’s body.
2. The system of organs of movement.
3. Digestive system.
4. Respiratory system.
5. The system of blood and lymph circulation.
6. The urinary system.
7. The system of reproductive organs.
8. The system of organs of internal secretion.
9. The nervous system.
10. Sense organs.
11. The system of the general body cover, or skin.
Basics of dog behavior. Theory, methods and techniques of training service dogs.
Chapter I. Physiological foundations of behavior and dog training. Doctor of Biological Sciences L.V. Krushinsky.
1. The anatomical basis of the reflex.
2. Unconditioned reflexes.
3. Conditioned reflexes.
4. Irradiation and concentration of processes of excitation and inhibition.
5. Analytical and synthetic activity of the cerebral cortex.
6. Types of higher nervous activity.
7. Pathology of higher nervous activity.
Chapter II Theoretical foundations of training. A.P. Orlov.
1. The trainer as the main irritant for the dog.
2. Irritants used in dog training.
3. The main methods of training.
4. Skills and how to practice them.
5. Training factors that ensure the “reliability” of the dog.
6. An individual approach to training.
7. The main mistake of the trainer.
8. The value of external conditions for dog training.
9. Training and its tasks.
10. Basic principles of using a dog for intuition.
Chapter III. Training of service dogs. M.I. Vanichev, V.V. Rylov, N.A. Sugar.
1. Selection of a dog for training.
2. The initial approach to the dog and its training as a trainer.
3. Training for a nickname, a collar and a leash.
4. Methods and techniques for training service dogs.
Methods and techniques of general training.
Methods and techniques of special dog training.
5. Trainer’s mistakes when training a dog.
6. Special equipment for dog training.
Issues of keeping, caring, feeding, breeding and raising dogs. Dog Disease Summary.
Chapter I. Maintenance, feeding and care of service dogs. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences I. E. Izrailevich.
1. Keeping a dog.
2. Dog care.
3. Dog Carriage.
4. Feeding the dog.
Chapter II Breeding and rearing dogs. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences I. E. Izrailevich.
1. Methods of breeding.
2. Tribal work.
3. Dog breeding technique.
4. Feeding, keeping and caring for a female bitch.
5. Raising young animals.
6. Feeding, maintenance and weaning of weaners.
7. Organization of physical development of puppies.
8. Puping Pups.
9. Pre-training (education) of the puppy.
Chapter III. Dog Disease S. A. Ilyinsky. N.M. Inkov.
1. The main signs of disease.
2. Examination of a sick dog and the basic techniques of first aid.
3. The main diseases of the dog.
External non-communicable diseases.
Internal non-communicable diseases.
Dog Infectious Diseases.