Going into the desert during the hot daytime is extremely debilitating. Exercise during the march causes increased water loss by perspiration and leads to rapid dehydration. In addition, direct solar radiation creates the risk of rapid overheating of the body, the occurrence of heat or sunstroke.
Transition in the desert during the day and night, orientation in the desert during an emergency.
That is why a day passage in the desert is permissible only in extreme circumstances and only if the location of the settlement, artesian well or oasis is known for sure, the distance to them does not exceed 10 -20 km, and the state of human health allows you to overcome it in 3-4 hours. Only the most necessary flasks with water, an emergency radio station and signaling equipment are taken with them. The head, face and neck are protected from the scorching sun by a Burnus Cape, which is cut from any existing fabric..
To prevent sand from getting into the shoes when walking, they put on fabric shoe covers over it, pulling them a little higher than the ankles with laces. Glasses-filters protect the eyes well from blinding light and fine sand dust, and in their absence, the eyes are closed with strips of fabric with narrow slits. When crossing in the desert, it is best to stick to the foot of the dunes. Here the soil is denser, and the legs are not so deeply stuck in the sand. However, it is much more difficult to maintain direction. In order not to lose orientation, you have to constantly resort to the help of the compass.
, trying to get to the saving artesian wells drilled by prudent geologists as accurately as possible, spending 5 liters of water laid per day economically. The norm is very modest for the summer desert, when the air temperature in the shade constantly exceeds 45 degrees. Only in extreme cases did they uncork emergency rubber containers where water was stored for a rainy day. Of course, the successful completion of the expedition is the result of good sports training, endurance and determination of its participants.
But the main; the expedition showed that compliance with the rules of transition in the desert, rational distribution of water reserves, the ability to navigate in the desert, to search for water sources significantly increase the chances of people who find themselves among the sandy expanses as a result of an emergency for a successful outcome. Crossing through the desert at night is carried out in accordance with the general rules: with a uniform pace of movement, the organization of large and small halts, etc..
Particular attention in halts should be given to the legs. Wipe the feet and interdigital spaces dry, carefully shake the sand and small stones from the shoe. During the night march, orientation is usually conducted by the stars. This method is the most simple, reliable, does not require stops on the way, and a cloudless sky allows you to use it constantly. The sandstorm Samum is a formidable danger. The first harbinger of the impending storm of silence. The wind suddenly subsides, and a languid calm descends into the desert. No sound, no rustle, no breath even of the lightest breeze. It becomes unbearably stuffy, as if there was not enough oxygen in the air.
A dark, almost inconspicuous cloud on the horizon is growing rapidly, covering the sky, turning before our eyes into a huge black-brown cloud. She’s getting closer and closer. Some strange high sounds with a metallic tint fill the air. This myriad of grains of sand collide with each other in a frantic whirlwind. Sometimes the summit approaches in the form of a giant black-brown wall rising to a height of several kilometers, eclipsing the sun. Wind speed reaches 50 m / s or more.
The only salvation for a man caught in the desert by his summit is to lie immediately on the leeward side of a tree, rock, stone, wrap his head in any fabric, covering his nose and mouth with a scarf. A flask of water is instilled next to it. Sandstorms are usually short-lived, but can rage continuously for two to three days. However, in any case, the transition in the desert should not be continued before the wind finally subsides..
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.